Mountrath Nov. 16th 1838.

Dear Sir,

My next task is to point out the number and extent of the territories of which the region now called the County of Galway consisted before it was formed into a shire and divided into baronies in the 16th century. This I must do at once while I have the historical authorities before me; and the situation of the places fresh on my memory, for should I neglect doing so now I could never again bring the same powers to bear upon the subject because even though the materials are now collected (and will remain so for ever), I could never again bring the same vigor of memory to my assistance. As however I have already written a good deal upon the same subject I shall now confine myself to particulars which I have omitted in my former letters, but especially to the pointing out the number and extent of the territories, and their ancient proprietors.

There are four territories in this County which I have not yet examined, but as I have an accurate idea of their situation and extent I shall include them in this dissertation.


i.e. Partry of the Mountain.

According to O'Flaherty's Statistical account of West Connaught, this territory extended from the Mountain of St. Patrick {Croaghpatrick} to the lake of Orbsen {Lough Corrib} and included Partry in the County of Mayo and Joyce's Country or the Barony of Ross. See my account of the territories in the County of Mayo and also my letter on O'Flaherty's Country. All I have to add here is that the O'Dorchys {Ui Dorchaidhe}, the ancient Irish chiefs of this territory are said by Mac Firbis to be the (ancestors of the) D'Arcys of Galway who are supposed to be of Anglo-Norman origin, but I should be slow in adopting his opinion or authority, for there is every probability that there were two distinct families of Darcys in Galway, (the) one of Anglo-Norman origin, and the other of Irish blood, who are certainly the O'Dorcys of Partry of the mountain, who were driven out by the Joyces. It is now almost impossible to distinguish the one from the other as the O'Dorcys always write their name Darcy, unless indeed one has great powers of observing physiognomical peculiarities.


[Hand of a scrivener]


{Hardiman's Hist: of Galway} page 11

This family stands highly distinguished in the annals of the kingdom; its descent is derived from David D'Arcy, {of an eminent family in France, which deduces its origin from Charlemagne} who took his surname from Castle D'Arcie his chief seat which lay within thirty miles of Paris. His son Christopher, having with a band of his vassals joined the Crusades, died in Palestine leaving Thomas his heir whose son Sir Richard D'Arcy accompanied William the Conqueror to England, where after he was settled that Monarch enriched him with ample possessions which some (of) his posterity still enjoy.(a) From him descended, Sir John D'Arcy from him descended who was in high in repute with Edward II by whom he was appointed Justice of Ireland in 1323. He married the Lady Jane Bourke daughter of Richard, Earl of Ulster from which marriage are derived all the D'Arcies of this Kingdom.(b)

The Galway family is immediately (p. 12) descended from James Riveagh D'Arcy, who settled here about the end of the reign of Elizabeth, and in consequence of his superior abilities and address rapidly acquired considerable power and [Hand changes here:] influence. From him Sprung in a direct of Newforest in the County of Galway {formerly of Clunuane in the County of Clare} Gorteen and Houndswood in the County of Mayo.

Arms, Azure, semee of Cross Crosslets, three cinquefoils. argent. Crest. On a chapeau gules, doubled ermine a bull passant, sable, corned, unguled, and furnished, or. Motto. Un Dieu, un Roy.



(a) I Vol: Pedigrees Office of Arms.

(b) lb. - The following extract is taken from a memoir drawn up by one of this family, as a note to the last edition of Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, the orthography of the name is left unaltered. Sir John Darcy by his marriage was ancestor to the Darcies of Platten, Kiltolla, Clunuane, Gorteen, and others in Ireland having issue by her a son William and a daughter Elizabeth, married to


James Earl of Ormond; William the son was born at Maynooth in 1330 and having divers lands assigned to him in recompence of his father's services, he settled at Platten in the County of Meath, and by Catherine daughter of Sir Robert Fitz-Gerald of Alloone in the County of Kildare, had John Darcy Esqre. who by a daughter of Petyt, Palatine Baron of Mullingar had William his heir whose wife was Anne a daughter of the family of Barnwall of Crickstown by whom he had John Darcy Esqre. who married Margaret daughter of the Lord of Slane. He had two sons John and Nicholas.

John the eldest son took to wife Elizabeth daughter of Edmond Lord of Killeen ancestor to the Earl of Fingal and was father of Sir William Darcy of Platten who in 1523 was appointed vice-treasurer of Ireland; Nicholas the


youngest son was a captain of horse and being stationed in the County of Mayo married Jane daughter and heir of O'Duraghy of Partry in that county who brought him the large Estate of that County family and by her he had Thomas the father of Conyers whose son Nicholas had James {Riveagh, the swarthy} and Richard whose only daughter being married to Robert Blake of Ardfry in the County of Galway Esq., was mother of Sir Richard Blake, who was speaker or chairman of the supreme council of the confederate Catholics at Kilkenny in 1648.

James {Riveagh} Darcy was a person of such interest and power in Connaught that he was appointed vice president of that province in the reign of Elizabeth and was chief magistrate of the town of Galway as his monumental inscription sets forth {V praeses Conaciae, praetor Galviae} in the ffranciscan friary of Galway, he died in 1603, leaving seven sons and one daughter viz. Nicholas whose


two sons James and Dominick died childless the elder of whom a barrister at law settled his large estate in the Counties of Galway, Mayo, Roscommon and Clare on his first cousin James Darcy of Kiltolla Esqr. the son of his youngest uncle, Patrick {to be mentioned} Martin {from whom the Darcies of Clanuane in the county of Clare derive} James {ancestor to the families of Ballybocock, Goorteen, Hundswood, and Tuam} Anthony {from whom the Darcies of Brest in France descend, and who had also two daughters Catherine who married Marcus French Esqr. ancestor to the Frenches of Rahasane in the County of Galway and Anastace to James Daly of Carrownekelly in that County Esq.} Mark, Andrew, {whose daughter was married to Richard Martin Esqr. councellor


at law ancestor by her to (the) Martins of Tulliry in the County of Galway} Patrick of whom presently. The daughter was Anastace married to Sir Dominick Browne of Carrowbrowne in the County of Galway, Knt. by whom she had Geoffry Browne Esqr. {ancestor to the family of Castlemagarrett in the County of Mayo} and four daughters of whom Mary the eldest being married to Major John Browne of the Neale had George of the Neale, John of Westport ancestor to the Earl of Altamont and Dominick of Breaf, all in the County of Mayo.

Patrick Darcy of Kiltolla in the County of


Galway Esqr. the seventh son of James {Riveagh} Darcy was born in 1598 and was educated in the profession of the law; he was an active member of the parliament assembled at Dublin in 1640 and published an argument delivered by Patrick Darcy Esq. by express order of the house of Commons in the parliament of Ireland, 9th of June 1641; he died at Dublin in 1688 and was interred at Kilconnell in the County of Galway leaving issue by Elizabeth one of the four daughters of Sir Peter (p. 12) French an only son James born in 1633 who married Frances Trushot daughter to a gentleman of Brittany and a captain of a ship of war under Lewis


XIII {by his wife Anne Keating maid of honor to the Queen of Charles I} and dying in 1692 left issue Anne, Frances Brigid and Clare and an only son captain Hyacinth Darcy of Kiltolla, born in 1665 who married Catherine daughter of John Darcy of Gorteen in the County of Mayo [Hand changes here:] Esqr. and died in 1743 at Teranasker in the County of Galway having had issue by her who died in 1750 nine sons and three daughters viz Patrick Darcy of Kiltulla Esq. {whose wife was anne only daughter of walter Blake in oranmore in the County of Galway Esq. but had no issue} John {who married Jane daughter of


Sir Robuc Lych of Corrandolla in the said County, Bart and died in 1743 leaving Hyacinth who married Frances daughter of Henry O'Brien of Stonehall Esqr and by her who died 21st of October. 1753 had Patrick Frances and Henrietta}; John who in 1752 married Catherine daughter of Isadore Lynch of Drimcon in the county of Galway Esqr: Patrick a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris; James {who married first Jane daughter of Richard Martin of Dangan in the County of Galway, Esq. by whom he had an only son Richard who in December 1751 married at Bourdeaux the daughter


of Kirwan then a rich American widow; and by his second wife Mary daughter of Mr. Mathew Shee of Nantz, he had an only daughter Margaret}; Martin {living at Paris in 1752 Married Mary daughter of Thomas Darcy of Brest Esqr. great great Grandson of James {Riveagh} Darcy}; Hyacinth who died unmarried; Stephen, whose wife was anne French of the family of Rahasana and his issue were Peter, Hyacinth, Patrick, Stephen, John, Catherine, Ann and Anastace}; Francis unmarried; walter {who married anastace one of the six daughters of John Darcy of Gorteen Esq.}; Silvester died unmarried; daughter Anastace {married Denis Daly


of Raford in the County of Galway Esq: whose son and heir, Denis of Ramore Esq: in June 1735 married the lady Anne Burke, elder daughter of Michael, Earl of Clanrickard}; Frances, {married to Robuc French of Duras in the County of Galway, Esq:} and Catherine unmarried.


[In a different hand:] Mr O'Donovan


[Hand of J. O'Donovan resumed:]


This territory is now called Connamara, and is unquestionably coextensive with the Barony of Ballynahinch. It is now generally believed that the name Connamara signifies bays of the sea, but this is certainly a mistake (an error), for all our ancient authorities agree that the true name is Conmaicne mara (Mr. Hardiman is satisfied that Connamara means Bays of the Sea. It never struck him that it might be Conmaicne Mara) i.e. Conmaicne of the sea (mara being added) to distinguish it from several other Conmaicne's in Connaught, all which derived their name from the descendants of Conmac, the son of Fergus ex-King of Ulster by Queen Maeve.

We learn from the Book of Fenagh that the Conmaicne of Moy Rein, (afterwards) the Mac Rannals and O'Farrell's were originally located in Conmaicne until St. Caillin of Fenagh removed them to Moy-Rein.

Before the arrival of the Anglo-Normans the territory of Conmaicne mara was in the possession of O'Cadhla, as we learn from Shane O'Dugan

Ar Chonmhaicne mara móir
O'Cadhla cara an comhóil.

At this period O'Flaherty was located to the east of Lough Orbsen. O'Cadhla was probably the representative of Conmac in this territory though strange to say, his pedigree has not been found in any of the repertories of Irish genealogical history He must have sunk at a very early period, otherwise his pedigree would have found its way into the regal Books of the Country

O'Flaherty who possessed this tract at a later period was not of the race of the Conmacs at all, but of more pure and untainted blood, as will appear from his high pedigree, which is not stained by any thing but (noble) murders and aristocratic robberies.

The O'Cadhla's {O'Coylas} seem never to have been driven out (as a clan) by the O'Flahertys, as I find that they are still numerous in the mountains, but I incline to think that they lost their dignity as chiefs and were reduced to the condition of Biataghs or Broo(e)es after the 11th Century. Perhaps also they were obliged to suppress their pedigree, lest as knowing (that they were) the descendants of Conmac, they might claim, at any period, the territory to which they gave name. But let me not be too suspicious


on this subject.

We learn from the Annals of the Four Masters at the year 663 that Baetan, the grandson of Cormac, who was abbot of Clonmacnoise & died in that year was of the tribe of the Conmaicne Mara; and at the year 1139 we learn that Hugh O'Cadhla was lord of Conmaicne mara. Henceforward it appears to belong to the O'Flahertys.


This territory was in latter times called Conmaicne of Dunmore, from (Dún Mór), its principal fortress. The Four Masters have not compiled (collected) any ancient passages relative to its history or to the succession of its chiefs previous (anterior) to the English invasion, and all we - at present - know of its history is (anterior to that period are two facts, viz) that it was Lughaidh the son of Dubhan {from whom the inhabitants of this tract were called Kinel Dubhain, i.e. the race of Dubhan} that granted to Saints Patrick and Benean the site on which the church of Kilbannin near Tuam was built, and that after the formation of surnames,


its chief was called O'Sidhlin. This latter fact we learn from O'Dugan

Conmaicne Dúna Móir Mir As tair ataid a thaoisigh Mineing na gcliar tar gach roinn O'Sídhlinn siar go Sionainn.
Of the vigorous Conmacnii of Dunmore Feeble {now} are the chiefs Props of the clergy beyond all The O'Sheelins west to the Shannon.

Shannon (Sionainn) is here unquestionably an error. We can infer from this passage in O'Dugan that the O'Sheelins were down in his time. It appears from the annals of the 4 Masters that the Mac Feorises or Birminghams, became lords of this territory after the twelfth century. See my letter from Tuam on the history of the Castle of Dunmore, the residence of Mac Feorais.

This territory comprised the town of Tuam and the church of Kilbannin, and at the


period of the formalion of baronies, was erected into the Barony of Dunmore.

For (writing) the history of the Berminghams of this territory, who were afterwards created Barons of Athenry, the Down Survey, (the) Book of Survey and Distribution, the Connaught Inquisitions and other authentic documents must be carefully compared and studied.

For the genealogical history of all the Conmaicne, the Book of Duald Mac Firbis, and those of Ballymote and Lecan must be consulted. I do not find the pedigree of O'Sidhlinn in any of the extracts now before me, and I incline to think that he sunk too early to have his pedigree preserved. He seems to be the Senior representative of Lughaidh (Looee) the son of Dubhan, who gave up his house of Dun-Looee to Saint Beneán for erecting Kilbannin on its site.



We return across the lake again, having been obliged to proceed in an irregular manner, for the purpose of placing the two Conmaicné's together. The next territory lying to the south of Conmaicne mara or Conmaicne maritima is Gno mor, which received its name, as usual, from the founder of a family, namely Gno mor, the son of Looéé, one of the Dalcassians who established a colony here at an early period.

We are informed by Shane O'Dugan that Mac Conroi {incorrectly written Mac an Righ by Hardiman} were the ancient chiefs of this territory.

Meg Chonroi réidh do gabhar
Ar Gno mór na míonchaladh.

This territory comprizes the parishes of Killbannin and Kilcummin in the Bar: of Moycullen.



This territory also derived its name from the founder of a family, namely Gnobeg, the son of Lughaidh and brother of Gno-mor. The O'Hadhnaidhs, according to O'Dugan, were the ancient proprietors of this territory, but in the 11th century the O'Flahertys who were originally located to the east of Lough Orbsen, obtained dominion over the entire tract of country lying west of that lake. Roderic O'Flaherty in his Statistical account of West Connaught does not say a word about this removal of the O'Flahertys, but in his Ogygia, although he does not acknowledge that the Mac Conrys were the original chiefs of Gno-mor, still he states that the O'Flaherty's were only (for) 800 years masters of the tract west of Lough Orbsen. His words are:

Gno-mor and Gno-beg (the sons of Lugad) fixed Delvin Feadha among


the Conmacnians to the west of Galway, between Loch Orbsen on the north, and Loch Lurgan or the bay of Galway, to the south, nine miles from Thomond; their posterity divided it into Gno-mor and Gno-beg, which are at this day comprehended within the barony of Moycullen. The Mac Conroys are descended from Gno-beg, who within my recollection held lands in Gno-beg under the O'Flahertys, who for a series of eight hundred years past, have held the sovereignty of the Conmacnians and Delvinians there.

Ogygia, par. III, c. 82.

Again in enumerating the Delvins, he places Delvin Feadha in Tir-da-loch, or "the land of the two lakes in Connaught".

From these words of O'Flaherty as well as from the Book of Lecan {fol: 210, b, b} and Ballymote {fol 107, b, b} that the region lying between Lough Corrib or Orbsen and Galway Bay which was originally called Lough


Lurgan, was originally designated from its situation, Tir-da-loch, i.e. the land or territory of the two lakes, and afterwards Dealbhna Tire da loch, from the descendants of the Dalcassian Looee Dealbhaodh who settled there at an early period, and that it was in process of time divided into two portions called Gno-mor and Gno-beg from the founders of two families of the Delvins.

So late as the year 1142 the annals of the Four Masters make mention of Dealbhna tire da loch, as the principality of Mac Conroi, thus

1142 The son of Mac Conroi, lord of Dealbhna Tire dá loch was killed.

O'Flaherty states that Gno-beg comprized the parishes of Moycullen and Rahoon,


Tir-da-loch or Dealbhna Feadha, then, was exactly coextensive with the Barony of Moycullen. The territories of Gno-mor and Gno-beg are mentioned and their extent laid down in the old English law documents, and shewn on several old English maps.

O'Flaherty is wrong in deducing the origin of Mac Conry from Gno-beg, as all the Irish MSS. of authority trace his pedigree to Gno-mor, thus:

Family tree of Mac Conroy

[Hand of E. O'Curry:]

Df Page 656.

Geinealach Mic Con Raoi
Mic Domhnaill Mic Conchabhair
Mic Domhnaill Mic Donnchaigh
Mic Feargusa Mic Conri
Mic Donnchaigh Mic Feargosa
Mic Diarmada Mic Conchabhair
Mic Conraoi Mic Amhlaidh
Mic Luighdheach Mic Baoithin (Baodain)
Mic Sioda (Sigh) Mic Cais Mic Lughaigh
Mic Lorcain (Luachain) Mic Innealaidh (Aindiola)
Mic Dongusa Mic Dunghalaidh
Mic Comgaill Mic Sarain
Mic Maoiltola
Mic Mothain (no Mic Maotain vel. Nothain)
Mic Gnaoi Moir
Mic Dealbhaoith .i. Luigheadh
Mic Cais &c .i. tal.

[To right-hand side of the above Irish, hand of J. O'Donovan:]

The poem on the following page gives a curious account of (all) the Delvins, and particularly of Gno mor and Gno beg. It states that Mac Conroi and O'Caibhdenaigh were alternately chiefs of the two Gno's, territories which they wrested from the Conmaicne. (The) Conmaicne mara then before the settlement of the Delvins in Tir-da-loch, possessed all the country west of Loch Orbsen and the river of Galway.

[Hand of E. O'Curry:]

Atriallam timchioll na Fodla.
Mac Con-raoi rédh do gabadh, or gnó mhór na mionchaladh
Ó héunda ar ghno mbeg mbuan, aséula sin ní diombuan.
Dealbhaodh reamraite .i. Lughaidh Mac Cais cuirfeam (do shorchughadha shleachta) sior annro, an duain sheancaissi labrus air
Eolach me iccroibh chloinne Luighdeach, mec cais mhordha maillbreathuigh.
Do chlannaibh tail do chloinn chliairaigh, nar dhiamair re daighbheathaidh,
D a mhac do tál cas na trénfhir, siar greadhna go ngairg ghniomhuibh
Lughaidh dealbhaoth lughaidh lannghlan, dhá adhbar ór airdrioghuibh.
Clann na desi doirbh a neolus, reach a chele a ccraobhsgaoiliodh
Deoghchlann dha dearbhrathar bunuidh, dha churuidh chrioch chaomh ghaoidhiol.
A ffearonn as fearonn cloidhimh, Clann Maicne an da chaoimh lughaidh
Do ghabhsad crich ngiolladh ngreadhnach, go searbradh no saorchuraidh
Na seacht n'dealbhna fa donn sleagha, siol ,an Dealbhaoith Donnarmuigh (Lughaidh Delbaoth a quo seachd nDealbhna)
Ataid i leath cuinn an chomhoil, nach beg onoir do ollamhnuibh.
Dealbna Mhor Dealbna bheag bhreagha, Dealbhna eathra airmreamhair
An aicme fa meardha mogha, dealbhna an bhrogha bainnleabhair
Dealbhna shithe niamh ghlain neannta
(see boundaries of Hymaine) dealbhna nuadhat neamh dochroidh,
Dealbhna chula fionnglain fabhair. Nar deaghail re deaghlochaibh.
On taoibh anior dfionnloch Oirbsin, go brugh Aonghuis ollbhuidhnigh,
Annsin do sgaoilsiod clann dealbhaoith, fa derbhghaoith na donnmuimnigh
Do bhi ag lughaidh airmgheur ele cuigear mac nor maoilbheannach
Da ghno is da eunna no noirear, ler snaoidheadh gach saoirtheaghlach
An cuigeadh mac Baodan buileach, triath fa tresi ar tuilbhreathuibh
Ui Mhaoilbhaodain ainm a aicme, maicne maith do mhuimneachuibh
In desibh mionghlana Mumhan, gabhsad an da ghlaineunna
Fearonn cloidhimh ar chloinn fhiacha neart riaghla fa rosdheudla
Théd eunna airgneach na tuaisgeart, na desi go forghorach
Théd eunda teith ina desgeart, le sion anchrioch comhramhach
Théd Gnó Beag is Gnó Mór meanmach, iccrioch Connacht craobhnuaidhe
Cumhsgaighsiod ar chlannuibh Conmhaic, da bhorbshlait na braonuaille
Braithirsi mhaith ag na macuibh, ag an da gnó ghnimhfhearda
Righe fa seach ag na slataibh, ag na macaibh míneargna
A táid mar sin siol Desi, da nési, n-és fén ar follmhaitheas
Righe gach re n-uair dá nési, no re chéle iccómhfhlaitheas
Mac-con-raoi na ruatur mbeódha, is ui chródha Caibdheanuigh.
Asiad riogha an da fhnó gheuggha, go deudla is na daighleabharaibh
Baid ag na dhealbhnaibh tre dhúthchus, re dá, gnó no ccaomhchuradh
Tre ambeth do dhal cCáis na ccaomhcrann, saorchlann an da shaorlughaigh
Trea nainmer da nathair mac na riogh go raithreórach
Mar sgarus re chéle a ccemeann, ni deneam acht daigheolach eolach
S.S. Clanna Ebhir i leith Cuinn .1. gaileanga tair ague thiar. Cianachta teas, agus tuaigh & na seacht ndealbhna, .i. Dealbhna Mhor, Dealbhna Bheag, Dealbhna Cuile Fabhair, Dealbhna Batra ri Iartur Midhe, Dealbhna Nuadhad, Dealbhna Teandmuighe, agus Dealbhna Feadha Thire Da Loch i cConnachtaibh .i, Gnó Mór, agus Gnó Beag, .i. o h-Aonaig a taoisioch agus Mac-con-raoi ar Gnó Mór.
Fochann tiachtana no nDealbhna i leth cuinn .i. baoi inghean dar b'ainm Aoibhfela Lughaigh
Mac Caas dar bo ainm Dealbhaoth, agus tug 1 do thrat Mac Tasaig do bhainchéle.
S' iris trath comhrairle ar a mnaoi .i. seun diaraigh fearainn ar a hathair, ar bo draoi
Amhna esidhen, coniairdais, fearrann do dhiolfad asiol dia nesi, luidh dona an inghean dia hathair, & t

(a) No pedigree for O'Caibhdeanaigh nor for O'Hadhnaigh or O'Cadhla. All that I could collect on those subjects was sent to Mr. O'Donovan along with Mayo Extracts - E. Curry

[In pencil:]

Why not copy the entire of this?, JO'D. [In pencil:] Because the acct. of the Delvins has been copied for several other places already, E Curry



Proceeding east of Lough Orbsen we go into the territory of Munter-Moroghoe the original Country of the O'Flaherty's. It comprized various other territories, which I have specified in a former letter.

This (more ancient) Country of the O'Flaherty's or the Munter Moroghoe extended from the southern boundary of the barony of Kilmaine in the County of Mayo (southwards) to Clarin-Bridge, and from Lough Orbsen (and the river of Galway) eastwards to Knock Máá and Athenry. It comprised the following parishes, viz Donaghpatrick, Kilkilvery, Killower, Clare Tuam, Killursa, Cargin, Killeeny, Kilcoony, Cummer, Annadown, Kilmoylan, Lack-agh, Clare Galway, Oranmore, St. Nicholas's, Maaree {now Ballynacourty} and Athenry, or at least that part of it N.W. of the River, and in the Diocese of Tuam. It was bounded on the north by the territories of Conmaicne Cuile Toladh and Conmaicne Kinel Dubhain; on


the east by Hy-Many, which is met at Knock Máá and at the ford of Athenry; on the south by the territory of Aidhne or Tir-fiachrach Aidhne, which it met at Ath cliath Meadhraighe or Clarin-Bridge; and on the west by the Bay and River of Galway and by the spacious Lough Corrib, anciently Loch Orbsen.

The principal territories or cantreds included in this territory are Hy-Briuin Seola, Hy-Briuin Ratha and Clann Feargaile, the situation of which I have already pointed out.

The O'Flaherty's were afterwards driven out of this level territory {across the lake Orbsen into Tir-da-loch and Conmaicne Mara,) and (when it) {Munter Moroghoe} was in process of time, made a part of Clanrickard. An Inquisition taken at Galway on the 20th of March 1608, finds that the territory of Clanrickard consisted of six baronies, viz Loughreagh, Dunkellyn,


Kiltartan, Clare, Athenry and Leitrim.


The name of this territory ({pronounced Clan-Kennoo}) is still in constant use in the country, and the extent of it well known to the old people, who agree that it is coextensive with the Barony of Ballymoe. According to the annals of the Four Masters this territory lies west of the River Suck, and Mac Firbis informs us that it comprised 48 ballys, which would make at least 192 of our present townlands.

This was the patrimony of the once noble family of O'Finaghty,(triath nach iodholta os coill cuir, O'Fionnachta ar Clionn Conmhuigh - O'Dugan) who are now, and have been for ages in a state of abject pauperism. They were the senior chieftains of the Siol-Muireadhaigh, of whom the O'Conors afterwards became leaders & chiefs not by seniority of birth but by the sword. Mac Firbis speaks of the Clann Conway as follows.

Conmhach was the son of Muireadhach, and his eldest son, and in consequence


of this seniority, his descendants though of inferior rank are entitled to great privileges from the other sons of Muireadhach, namely to drink the first cup at every feast and banquet of a king, on which occasion all the descendants of the other sons must rise up before the representative of Conmach.

O'Finaghty was the Royal chieftain of the Clanconway, and, before the English Invasion had 48 ballys about the River Suck; but the Burkes drove him from his patrimonial inheritance, and there lives not at the time of writing this book {1645} any individual of the family of Finaghty more illustrious (my old friend friend Tom Finaghty, professor of the Irish language to the Synod of Ulster, is now perhaps the most Oirdherc of this family!) than the blessed and miraculous priest James, whose brothers are William and Redmond, sons of Cathal, son of Donogh, son of Hugh, son of Rory, son of Cathal, son of Teige oge, son of Teige, son of Cathal.

Is the pedigree of O'Finaghty given in the Books of Lecan or Ballymote?

The Four Masters have collected no annals of this territory while in the hands of the Finaghtys.


A.D. 1177 Flann O'Finaghty was (one of the) subscribing witnesses of a grant made in perpetuity by Roderic O'Conor, King of Ireland to Saint Berach {of Kilbarry}.

[Hand of a scrivener]


A.D. 1406 O'Connor Don {Torlogh oge the son of Hugh who was son of Torlogh &c} soever of the support and protection and of the hospitality and renown of Connaught was slain by Cathal Dubh {black} the son of O'Conor Roe assisted by John the son of Hobert who was son of Edmond who was son of Hobert who was son of Sir Edmond Burke whose mother was Beanmumhan the Grandaughter of Felim in the house of Richard the son of John Boy who was the son of Edmond who was son of Hobert at Cregan by the side of Fidhici in Clann Conmhaighe.(a)


John the son of Hobert fell on this spot by the hand of O'Connor.


(a) [Referred to on MS p. 287] Clann Conmhuighe a territory lying to (the) west of the Suck in the in the [sic] County of Galway and comprising 48 Ballys which would make about 192 of our present Townlands. See a notice of this territory under the year 1600. It was originally the patrimonial Inheritance of O'Finaghty the senior of the Siol Muireadhaigh but since the anglo norman conquest it was the Lordship of Mac David a branch of the De Burgos. See note under Dunamon at the year 1232 and also the references to Dunamon at the years 1233, 1400, 1446.


A.D. 1530 O'Donnell led an army into the Province of Connaught. He directed his route westwards across the Shannon to Machaire Chonnacht to the Bridge of Ath Mogha.(a) He destroyed (cróithedh) and devastated by Fire the territory of Clann Conmhaigh he also burned Glinske cill-cruain ({now Kilcroan near Ballymoe}) the Castles of Mac David and obtained great spoil in these countries. He afterwards Burned Ballintubber also and obtained his tribute from O'Connor Roe viz six pence for every quarter of Land in his territory. After having destroyed Moylorg he returned home through Bealach Boy without receiving any injury.


(a) Ath Mogha is called Bel-atha-Mogha at the year 1595. It is now called Ballimoe {rectus Bellamoe} and is a small village on the River Suck on the Borders of the counties of Roscommon and Galway. See note under the year 1595.


A.D. 1507 O'Donnell {Hugh Roe} the son of Hugh who was son of Magnus encamped in Breifny in Connaught to the East of Sliabh daen after having plundered {as we have already stated} the Friends of O'Connor. Here he stopped until he should be joined by all his forces from every direction. When all had assembled which was in the end of the month of January they marched into the territory of Hynoillealta ({Tir Errill}) thence into Corran through Machaire Chonnaught into Clan Conmhuighe and Hy-Many. Having arrived (come) at the very centre of (Hy-) Many O'Donnell sent forth several strong marauding parties to Tuath an chalaidh and the upper part of the territory who brought many herds of Cattle (and other spoils) to him


to Athenry. The warders of this town attempted to defend it but their efforts were useless. O'Donnell's people applied Fires and torches to the Strong gates of the town and carried with them Large Ladders by means of which they ascended to the parapets of the walls. From the tops of the walls some Leaped into the Streets of the town and opened the gates for those who were outside. They all then proceeded to demolish the Store houses and the houses of Defence, which they stripped of all their goods and valuables. They remained that night in the town. It would be difficult to enumerate on the next day the quantities of copper, iron,


clothes and vesture they carried away from (the) town on the Following day. From this town also O'Donnell sent Forth marauding paruaies to plunder Clanrickard on both sides of the River; these pillaged and ravaged the entire tract of country Lying between Leathraith and Seanchomhladh. The remaining part of his army burned and ravaged the territory from Athenry to Rath Goirgin westwards to Rinnmil and Meadhruighe and to the very gates of Galway and also burned Teagh Brighde at the Gate called Spairri.(a) O'Donnell pitched his Camp for that night between Uaranmor (Oranmore) and Galway precisely at Clock an Lingsigh and on the following


morning went to the Monastery of Cnoc near the Gate of Galway and trafficked with the Inhabitants of the town exchanging a portion of his spoil for some of their various wares and rich apparel. He then resolved upon returning back though had he not been impeded by the heavy burthen and Great incumberance of his many spoils he would have advanced Forwards directly to Gort-insi Guaire in Kinel Aodha na h-Echtge. He marched back the same Road with his Forces and spoils through the very middle of Connaught and made no delay until he had pitched his camp in Calry(b) to the East of Sligo after which


he Changed his Gillanraidh ({calones}) and the unarmed part of his army with the escort of a portion of the spoils northwards across the River Samhaoir {Erne}.


(a) [Referred to on MS p. 292] All the Gates at Limerick are called sparr's as Spárr Tuathmhúmhan Thomond gate; Spárr an Uisce Water Gate; Spárr San Seon John's Gate; Spárr Mungairit Mungret-gates. Sparra is understood at Galway and Athenry to mean the gate of a City.

(b) {Referred to on MS p. 293] Calry is now the name of a Parish lying to the Easua of the town of Sligo in the Barony of Carbury.

A.D. 1600 As to Donnell when he perceived that they {the English under Sr. Henry Dockwra} ventured not outside their Fortifications from the influence of dread and Fear he made little or no account of them and assembled his Forces to march into the South of Connaught to (plunder) the territories


that Lay around Sliabh Echtge(a) and Especially Thomond. ***

He then mustered an army and Proceeded westwards across the River Erne. In this army were all those that were under his Jurisdiction in Ulster and the Connacians from the River Suck to the Drobhaois and From the west of Tirawley to Breifny O'Reilly who assembled at his call were awaiting him at Ballymote (Ballymate). ***

When O'Donnell and his ultonian Forces had joined the Connacians at Ballymoat he marched them through Corran through the middle of Moy ai an fhinnbheannaigh through Clann Conmhaigh


through Hy Many and the Level part of Clanrickard without giving Battle or Skirmish and without giving or sustaining the slightest injury {until} he pitched his Camp in the west of Clanrickard in the Patrimony of Edmond ( [In a different hand:] Erraght Redmond) {Burke} on the Evening of Saturday. On the Tuesday Following being the Festival of Saint John {24th June} messengers (from his enemies) to tell O'Brien of his approach arrived in Thomond thinking that he would not move from the Spot until the morning of Monday. But in this they were mistaken for they set out early on Sunday morning and marched Forward through the territory of Redmond through Cenel Aodha


through Cinel Donghaile and upper Clann Cuillin and before Midday had passed westwards across the river Fergus after having plundered the greater portion of the territories through which they passed, &c.


(a) [Referred to on MS p. 295] Sliabh Echtghe now called Sliabh Eachtuighe (Slia Bachte, Sliabh Eachte) a mountain in the north of the county of Clare adjoining the county of Galway.

A.D. 1601. The sons of John na Seamar Son of Richard Saxonach of whom we have already Spoken happened to be encamped during the first days of the month of January in O'Meagher's Country in Hy Cairin. Spies and Scouts were sent out by the nobles of the Butlers to reconnoitre them and discover whether an advantageous attack could be made upon them. To give this matter due deliberation, Sir Walter son of John


who was Son of James Butler and Mac Pierce James the Son of Edward who was Son of Pierce and some of the nobles of the two counties Kilkenny and Tipperary after the report of the spies met on a certain night at an appointed Place and the result of their conference was a determination to attack the connaught camp at day Break next morning. An unusual accident occurred in the camp of the Burkes for by a most Fatal oversight they neglected to place sentinals on the watch so that their enemies Finding them unguarded rushed into the midst of them and left (them) lying mangled and Slaughtered gashed and Blood stained corpses throughout their tents and booths. On this occasion was Slain


O'Shaughnessy John the son of Gilduff who was son of Dermott who was son of William who had been banished from his Patrimony as indeed had been all those plunderers who were in confederacy with the sons of John Burke. John oge the son of John Burke was taken Prisoner and conveyed to Kilkenny where he was placed in Confinement. Redmond Burke and William with some of their people escaped From this massacre (and went) into Ely and after remaining a short time there passed into Ulster leaving the Castles which they had hitherto possessed in East Munster under a very Slender Guard. On their arrival among the Irish of the North, i.e. O'Neill and O'Donnell


Redmond proceeded to hire soldiers to march into Clanrickard and (as soon as he had) a sufficient number he Led them during the First days of Spring across the Erne and passed along the borders of Breifney O'Rourke through the counties of Sligo and Roscommon and across the river Suck into Clann Conmhaigh he made a prisoner of the Lord of this Latter territory viz Mac David {Fiach the son of Hobart Boy who was son of William who was son of Thomas} and afterwards proceeded to Tuath an Chalaidh in the upper part of Hy-Many in the county of Galway.

As soon as the Earl of Clanrickard {Ulick Burke} heard of his proceedings he went to the eastern extremity of his


Country to await and watch him but notwithstanding all his vigilance Redmond passed by him into clanrickard on the 13th night of the month of March without being heard or noticed by him and proceeded onwards to the territory of Kenel Feichin to the south of the Barony of Leitrim in the County of Galway. On the Following morning Redmond sent Forth marauding parties through every town {Townland} of that territory from Magh Glas to Crannog Meg Cuaimhin and from Coill Chreac to the mountain and before the noon of that day he had made himself master of all the


property and moveable effects of that territory. He afterwards took up his abode in the woods situate in the upper part of that territory and continued for Four or Five days wandered about fsom place to Place plundering his neighbours and Fortifying {(i.e.) his camp} unuail the Earl of Clanrickard accompanied by all the troops he had been able to muster in the territory arrived and Pitched his camp at the monastery of Kenel Feichin.



A.D. 1232 The Castle of Bon Gaillmhe was erected by Richard de Burgo and the execution (erection?) of the Castle of Dun-imguin(a) was commenced by Adam Stondun {Staunton}. Giolla-na-naomh O'Daly a Learned poet who had kept a house of (public) hospitallity [sic] for the Lowly and the mighty alike Died.


(a) Dun Iomghuin now Dunamon on the River Suck on the borders of the Counties of Roscommon and Galway. Tradition says that Dunamon was originally the residence of O'Finaghty whose territory consisting of 22 (48) townlands ({Ballys}) lay to the west of the River Suck and this Tradition is curiously corroborated by a notice given of this Family in Mac Firbisses pedigree which is here translated -


Conmach was the son of Muireadhach and he was his eldest son and in consequence of this seniority the descendants of conmach {tho Inferior in power} are entitled to great Privileges from the descendants of the other sons of Muireadhach viz to drink the first cup at every Feast and banquet of a king; and all the descendants of the other sons of Muireadhach must rise up before the representative of Conmhach or Chief of Clann Conmhuighe. O'Finaghty was the royal Chieftain of Clann Conmhuighe and had 48 Ballys about the Suck before the English Invasion but the Burkes drove him from his Patrimonial inheritance so that there Liveth not of the Family of O'Finaghty at the time of writing this Book {1645} any one more illustrious than the blessed and miraculous priest James whose brothers are William and Redmond sons of Cathal


son of Donogh, son of Hugh, son of Rory, son of Cathal son of Teige oge son of Teige son of Cathal.

[Hand of John O'Donovan resumed:]

The Mac Davids, who, according to tradition and Mac Firbis are a legitimate branch of the Burkes, descended from the Richard Burke, (the great Lord of Connaught) obtained possession of this territory by treachery in the 13th century. It would appear that this was effected through (by) the contrivance and procurement of Nuala Ny-Finaghty surnamed na meadoige, who was the mother of David Burke, the progenitor of the Mac Davids, but it is not easy to believe a traditional account of five or six hundred years standing unless borne out by written history, and the truth seems to be that the Mac Davids put down the Finaghtys as


being a more vigorous race. I do not however want (wish) to deny that they were capable of treachery, neither do I wish to make any one believe that Richard Finn Burke (the son of the Great Lord of Connaught) was married to Nuala Ny-Finaghty; the only part of the story I wish to oppugn (impugn) the authenticity of, is (the account of) the manner in which Nuala procured the downfall of her brothers in order to elevate her own Bastard by the Richard Finn, which is so like the fable of the two bitches, that it seems to be one of "the olde stories of Ireland".

The present head of the descendants of David Burke is John Burke Esq. of Glinsk, whose property is very much incumbered. See my letter on the parish of Ballynakille.

Family tree of Mac Davids.


1530 - O'Donnell led an army into the province of Connaught; he first passed thro' Coillte Chou-chubhair and from thence he went through the Tanists' portion of Moylurg by the fishing weir of Druim ruisc across the Shannon, and burned and totally destroyed the territory of Muinter Eolais and slew many of the inhabitants around the Castle of Leitrim among whom were Magnus the son of Ferdoragh Mac Sweeny, and the son of Mac Colin {Torlogh Duff}. He afterwards directed his route westwards across


the Shannon to Machaire Chonnacht to the Bridge of Ath Mogha (.i. Ballymoe}). He destroyed and devastated by fire the territory of Clann Comnhaigh ({Clan Konnoo}) he also burned Glinske, Cill-Cruain ({now Kilcroan}) the Castles of Mac David and obtained great spoils in these countries; he afterwards burned Ballintober also and obtained his tribute from O'Conor Roe, viz six pence for every quarter of land in his territory. After having destroyed Moylurg he returned home through Bealach Boy without receiving any injury.

He afterwards went to Breifny where his army burned the best wooden


house in all Ireland, viz the house of Mac Consnava {now Forde} on Lough Allen. They destroyed and desolated all Breifny from the mountain westwards on this occasion.

1597 - Con and Dermott the two sons of this Dudley {who was the son of Tuathal O'Conor & died at Breac cluin in this year} and the son of Mac Dermott of Moylurg {Mulrony the son of Brian, who was son of Rory, who was son of Teige} made an irruption into Glinske the residence of Mac David* {Burke} and seized upon booty. As they were returning with their spoils from the place, Mac David came up with them


at the "Winding of the Suck" (A Lúib na Sucae) defeated them and slew Con O'Conor, by no means one of the least expert horsemen in Connaught, Mulrony Mac Dermott aforesaid and many other gentlemen. McDavid then returned home in triumph.

*A branch of the Burkes was so called. Another branch assumed the appelation of Mac William, as I have observed before. - J.O'D.


The (name of this) territory is still well known in the country, but I fear that its modern extent is more circumscribed than its ancient extent. At present Corcamoe is understood to comprise the parish of Kilkerrin, and the eastern part of the parish of Cloonberrin, as I have specified in a former letter. We learn from O'Dugan's topo-


graphical poem, that the McScahills were the ancient chiefs of this territory.

Mac Sgaithghil sgiamhach a sguir
Ar Chorca Mogha an mhuirir,
An scoth fa aoibh anora.
Mac Scahill, beautiful his tents
Over Corca Moc of the tribe (heavy tribe)
The flower, now in (or under) happiness.

This shews that Mac Scahills were in possession of their property in O'Dugan's time. They are still numerous enough in the neighbourhood of their ancient patrimony, but have all dwindled into farmers or Cottiers.

No pedigree nor genealogical history of the Mac Scahills, nor ancient annals of Corco Moc have been found in any of the historical books of Ireland, and in the whole body of Irish history only one reference to Corco-Moc is to be met with, and even


the truth of this is doubted by O'Flaherty. It states that the Corco Mogha of Connaught descend from Buan, the son of the great Magician Mogh Ruith, the friend and Companion of Simon Magus. See Duald Mac Firbis's pedigree of the Men of Fermoy, p. 535. On this O'Flaherty remarks in Ogygia part III, C. 69,

I am inclined to believe that there was another Mogh ruth different from this Mogh ruth {the Magician} whose son was Buan after whom Corco Mogha in the County of Galway is called.

We have then no materials for elucidating the history of the territory of (the) Corco Mogha. I was under the impression that that tribe were descended from the Danonian Mogha, who gave name to the Inse Mogha in Clew Bay and to Bellamoe on the Suck, but we must be content with conjectures about their origin till some historical account of them will, if ever, turn up.


[Hand of a scrivener:]


Annals 4 Masters {950 & 1002 translation by P. O'Keeffe}

950 - Ferdomhuach, that is the grandson of Maonach, Abbot of Clonmacnoise and Glandalough of the Corcomoccha by extraction {died}.

1002 Flandch O'Ruidhine Cowarb of Kieran the son of the carpenter, of the Corcomoccha (.i. Corco Mogha) by extraction {died}.

1382 The Clan Morris (Maurice) made an incursion into Corcomodha and committed a predatory outrage there: O'Conceanainn went in pursuit of the spoils but was slain at once. Connor oge Mac Dermott and his brothers afterwards marched against the Clan Maurice


who having received notice of their proceedings drew up all their forces in battle array against them but the Mac Dermotts advanced in despite of this as far as the town which they burned as well the buildings as the Corn {in them}. Many were killed on this occasion. Connor and his people then returned home and such was their might and dexterity in the field that none of them had suffered injury.

4 Masters.

[Hand of John O'Donovan resumed:]

It would appear from this last passage that O'Concannon was the chief of Corco Mogha in the year 1382. The O'Concannons were of the Siol Muireadhaigh and located near O'Finaghty and adjoining Hy-Many.



This famous territory is described by its Bard O'Dugan (as) the large third of the province, which it certainly was in the 8th and 9th centuries, but in more modern times it was much smaller especially after the Burkes had formed the territory of Clanrickard. But previously to the year 751, as will appear from the annals of Hy-Many to be given presently, the territory did not extend eastwards farther than the River Suck, for until that year the entire of the territory of Dealbhna Nuadhat, which comprized the Baronies of Moycarnan and Athlone had been in the possession of the descendants of Sumand, the son of the Dalcassian Lughaidh Dealbhaodh. After that year however, as we learn from the Irish annals and O'Flaherty's Ogygia, the Hy-Manians greatly enlarged and extended


their original territory beyond the River Suck to the Shannon through the present County of Roscommon.

Ogygia, part III. c. 76, and Annals 4 Mast. ad anno: 751.

At this period Hy-Many embraced the third part of the province of Connaught, and it is actually styled by O'Dugan {the Laureat of the territory, who died in 1372} the large third of Connaught. The following are his words:

Ionnsaígheam Echtghe na ngleann
Cuartaígheam an fonn fairseang
Cuiream brigh in gach baile
Suidheam i mín Maonmhuíghe.
Ar clár Caradh on geárr grian
Feárr ár nanadh ná ár n-úirthriall;
Mór-thrian Connacht an clár sin
Uí Máine na mórdhail sin,
Ó Sionainn sreabha sidhe
Go meádha, ní mn ríghe
Cuid Uí Chonuill don chrích sin
Do'n tir álainn ainmhín sin
O ghréin co ceand mór muighe
Slógh ag réir an Ríoghruire.
Ríogha Maonmuighe na mal
Dar ab dúthaidh an donn chlár
Dias do techtaidh an taobh soin
O'Neachtain O'Maolalaidh
An gleó co trom is na tachraibh
As Leó an fonn co Fiachrachaibh.
Na se Sodhain na seachnam
A ríogha on ró seachmall
Maith sluagh na bhfoghadh bhfoghlach
Dán dual Sodhan sleagh armach.
O'Cathail O'Mudhróin mear,
O'Maolruana na ríghfhleadh
Croind díona an úr-fhuinn eanaigh
Ríogha Crumhthainn crích-fheádhaigh.
Hua Laodhóg laoich nach seachain
Ríghe an chalaidh crisleathain
Fis ler gabhadh na ngoire
Caladh Sionna shriobhghloine
Oirrigh buainteasdach bladhach
Os úrlár na n-Anmchadhach
Triath gairbhgeimleach na nglan ágh
Labhair go grod do'n ghnao1 sin
A bhflatha 'sa príomhthaoisigh
Mar as dual fúthaibh na fuinn
Luaidh gach duthaibh co díoghuinn
Torach ar bhuga 'sar bhlaidh
Do Mhac Eitteadháin uasail
Sloinn do ar athláimhe fhian
Is ar rathmhaire a ríghmhiadh.
Clann Diarmada thuaidh is theas
A gcur am dhuain as dileas
Mac Giolla Fhionnagain maoíth
Agus clann chrodha Cionaoith
Dá dhroing as aobhdha d'feádhain
Ar cloinn laomdha Laitheamain,
Uasal a bhfuil 's a bhfeadhma
Ui Domhnalláin déighdhealbhda
Do bhoing re treasaibh tuile
Ar Chloinn m-Breasail m-bárrbhuidhe
O'Donchadha gan duibhe
Ui Corpmaic Mhóir Maonmhuighe
For deis do lathaigh amuigh
Leis na flathaibh an fonn soin
Tair for inis Duibhgind Duinn
Dá bhaile déag Uí Duibhgind
Do tháthaidh tír na dtaoiseach
Bráthair righ an ríoghthaoiseach.
O'Docomhláin a deise
Ós rind aird na heidhníghe
Ní fhlaith adhnár tanade
O'Gabhráinn dala druithne
Taoisigh Muighe Finn fortail
Da dtug Bríghid beandochtain
Saor a sluaigh feadhma co se
O'Maoil - buain-fheardha - Bríghde
Maith a ndearna ar gach nduine
Flaith bhreághdha na bréduíghe.
Let us approach(a) Echtge of the valleys
Let us traverse the extensive land
Let us rouse up energy in every village (town)
Let us sit (halt) in the plain of Moenmoy.(b)
On the plain of Caradh(c) to which the sun is near(d)
'Tis better we should remain, then pass away from it
That plain is the great third of Connaught
That plain is Hy-Many of great meetings.
{Which extends} from the Shannon of the fairy (tranquil) flood
to Meádha(e) {Knock-Maá} no narrow kingdom (ní min ríghe).
O'Connell's part of this country -
- of this beautiful and very smooth territory -
Extends from Grian to the head of the great plain (Moy Seola?)
His tribe are loyal to the arch-chief.
The kings of Moenmoy of champions
{Kings} to whom that rich plain (donn-chlar) is hereditary
Two who have consolidated that side (quarter)
O'Neachtain, and O'Mullally,
Whose fight is brave in the battles
They possess the land as far as Hy-Fiachrach.
The six Sodans let us not avoid (shun)
Let us not forget their kings
Good the host of the plundering incursions (bhfoghadh)
Whose patrimony is Sodan of lances.
O'Cahill, O'Muran, the swift
O'Malroney of the royal banquets
Trees who shelter the rich irriguous land (fonn) -
Are kings of the woody country (crich-fheádhaigh) of Cruffan.
The O'Logues, heroes, whom I will not shun (nach seachnam)
Are kings of the wide-bordered Callow
Men who have gained possession of
The Callow of the bright stream of Shannon.
Urriaghs of constant character and fame
Rule o'er the plain (flat) of Hy-Anmchadha
Lords of rough fetters of great valor
0' - arm-venomed - Huallachan.(f)
Speak rapidly of that gnaoi (?)
Of their lords and arch-chieftains
As the lands are hereditarily under (possessed by) them
Mention each country distinctly (co dhioghainn)
Commence - for his liberality and fame -
With Mac Egan, the noble
Mention him {first} for the activity of his soldiers
For the prosperity of his Royal honor.
The Clann Dermot north and south
Are worthy of being inserted in my poem.
The Mac Giolla Fionnagans, the gentle (soft)
And the brave Clann-Kenny
Two tribes beautiful to be seen (d'feaghain)
Rule over the fiery Clann-Lahoowin.
Noble the blood and the battalions
of the fair-countenanced O'Donnellans
Who rush like a torrent to battles
Rule the Clann-Breasail of yellow locks (bárr buídhe, yellow hair?)
O'Donoghue without sullenness
The O'Cormacs Mor of Moenmoy
Are chiefs of that land, which lies
On your right outside the Lathach (morass).
Speak of the island of Duibhginn Donn?
O'Duibhginn has twelve Ballys
He has united the country of the chieftains
That royal chief is the brother (Kinsman) of a King.
O'Docomhlan I shall mention
Rules o'er lofty Rinn (Rinn) na heidhnidhe
He is no shy or feeble chieftain
O'Gabhrain over Dal Druithne
The mighty chiefs of Moy-finn
To which St. Brigit gave a blessing
Noble his serving host (soldiers) as yet (still)
O'Mul - Constantmanly - Breeda
Good his actions towards each man
The splendid chief of Bredach.

(a) The plain of Moinmoy contains the lake of Lough Reagh.

(b) Hy-Many is here called the plain of Caradh from Camadh a place situated on its northern extremity.

(c) It is so warm a country that the sun (grian) seems to be nearer to it than to other territories! q? Does he mean Grian on the S:W: extremity of Hy-Many.

(d) Meádha lies 5 miles to the S:W: of Tuam in the Bar: of Clare.

(e) All the other authorities make O'Madden the chief of Hy-Anmchadha.

So far O'Dugan, who was Laureat (ollav) of this territory of Hy-Many, and died at Randown in the year 1372. {See Annals of Hy-Many infrá} But the following tract {preserved in the Book of Lecan fol. 92) treating of the tribes, territories, customs &c., of Hy-Many is much more satisfactory, as it gives us an idea of the importance of a petty Irish prince and (the relative duties of) his Urriaghs before the period of the English Invasion. The Revd. Patrick Mac Loughlin of Inishowen, who was employed (in Paris) by the Irish Brigade to translate the Book of Lecan, has pronounced that the most curious tract in that large compilation, and such it will be found when properly translated and explained. Mac Loughlin attempted a translation of it but he left several passages unexplained. We shall try it here without hesitation


because we feel that we have had great practice at interpreting old documents of this description.


fol. 92, a.

These are the tributaries {lucht coimhícca} of the Clan-Kelly: the O'Duivgins, the O'Gevenys, the Macahills, the Mac Flyns, the Munter Murraghan and the Clan-Egan until these last became Ollavs(a) to the arch- chief.

Their (patrimonial) Country is to be for ever the third(b) of the province. The tribes are entitled to the third of every treasure found hidden or in the depths of the earth, and the family of the arch-chief are entitled to the third of the Eric paid for the killing of every man!(c)


(a) The Clan-Egan or Mac Egans afterwards became chief poets and Brehons to O'Kelly. A branch of them also passed into Ormond.

(b) O'Dugan calls Hy-Many the Mór-thrian or large third of Connaught. See ps. 62, and 65, line 5.

(c) i.e., The O'Kellys were entitled to the third part of all the Erics or bloodmoney paid throughout the province of Connaught. The amount of the Eric, as specified in the Brehon laws, varied according to the dignity of the person killed.


This family are also entitled to the third of all the valuable things thrown (ashore) by the ocean in the harbors of Connaught.(d)

The noble clans have the marshalship of the hosts (forces) from Caradh to Luimneach in Leinster and in Munster.(e)

These tribes are ({requested}) to make a rising out every spring and autumn, but there is no power to call them forth in despite of them.

No man of the province can stand, witness against any of those tribes but another Manian.(f)

Should the Conacian expedition continue longer than a fortnight, the Manians have power {or, are at liberty} to return home.(g)


(d) such as timber, wine, (whales) &c, In the year ? twenty tons of wine were cast ashore at Magh Ene near Ballyshannon. In Erris the timber cast ashore belongs to the landlord of the land on which it is found. All Major Bingham's furniture is made of mahogany found in wrecked vessels.

(e) This passage is very obscure.

(f) i.e., Should an inhabitant of Hy-Many be accused of theft or other crime by one of the O'Flahertys and O'Conors (&c), the charge would not be received.

(g) This was a great privilege.


Whatever amount of evidence be brought forward against them by lucht gaidi, one man or one witness denying or proving (the same) is sufficient.(h)

Whatever privileges (or Every privilege) are set down in books {as granted by the Ultonians} to the Orielians, the same is granted to O'Kelly by the Conacians.(i)

The following are the seven Urriaghs {sub-chiefs} of Hy-Many, viz .1. O'Connell,(j) who has the same patrimony as Mac Nevin and O'Dubhurla. 2. the Munter Madden Urriaghs of Siol-Anmchadha, 3. the O'Naghtans and O'Mullallys, Kings of Maenmoy. {N.B. The Kings of Hy-Fiachrach Finn, wonderful to say, have a subsidy from the King of Ireland which the Kings of Hy-Many have not.}(k)


(h) strange privilege!

(i) O'Kelly was of the race of the Collas as well as the chiefs of Oriel. See pedigree of the Oriels.

(j) Shane O'Dugan says that O'Connell's part of Hy-Many extends from Grian to the head of the great plain. See p. 65.

(k) This is an interpolation, or at least (evidently) misplaced here, as it breaks up the context.


{4} The six Sogans (or Sodans) with their triocha {barony}. Whoever of the six is endowed with the lordship ({of all}), he is styled Urriagh during his reign. The six tribes of Sogan are: 1. Kinel Reachta, 2. Kinel-Treana, 3. Kinel-luchta, 4. Kinel-Feargna, 5. Kinel-Domaingein & 6. Kinel-Gegill,(l)

5. The three Urriaghs of Siol-Cruffan-Keel, two of Cruffan's own seed and one of the Sil-Murry. These are the three: O'Malroney, O'Muroin and O'Cahill.(m)


(l) i.e. The country of the six Sogans (or Sodans) amounts to one triocha or Barony; only one chief is elected over the six, and during his reign he is classed under the rank of Urriagh. An Urriagh means the chief of a barony, or a chief tributary to a petty prince. Shane the proud O'Neill tyrannized over the other chiefs of the north, and stated that Mac Mahon, O'Hanlon, Magennis and others were only Urriaghs to him. See Moryson's pedigree of O'Neill.

The O'Mannins were generally the chief of the six Sogans. They are still numerous in the County of Galway, and their acknowledged Senior is Paul Mannion of Tuam.


6. The Kings of Callow,(n) {a territory extending} from Moin Inraideach to Cluain tuaiscirt na Sionda, viz the Mac Gilduffs, and O'Laoghachan or O'Logue is the chief of that fair triocha {hundred or Barony}.

The Flah of Hy-Many are seven (eight?) viz

  1. Mac Egan, chief (flaith) of Clann-Dermot.
  2. Mac Gille-Enan Flah of Clann Flaithooil or Munter-Kenny.
  3. Munter-Donnellan, chiefs of Clann Breasail.
  4. O'Duibhginn, chief of Clann-Duibhginn.
  5. O'Gabhrain, chief of Dal Druithne.
  6. O'Docowlan, chief of Rinn na h-eighnidhe.
  7. O'Donoghoe, chief of Hy-Cormaic Moenmoy.
  8. O'Malbreeda, chief of Bredach, the noblest territory in Hy-Many.(o)


(m) [Referred to on MS p. 326] The territory of Cruffan is still well known in the Country. It extends from Mount Talbot to Mount Bellew, and from Creggs to Castle Blakeney or Caltragh in the parish of Killasolan. It includes the parishes of Killian, Kilroran, Ballynakill, Killasolan and part of Athleague.

(n) Callow is also still known. It comprised the Barony of Kilconnell and part of Clonmacowen, as far (extending) southwards to Cloontooskert.


The seven principal Coarbs of Hy-Many are:

  1. The Coarb of Cluain fearta(p)
  2. The Coarb of Cill-Mian(q)
  3. The Coarb of Cill tulach(r)
  4. The Coarb of Cill Comadan(s)
  5. The Coarb of Camach-Brighide(t) where the people of Hy-Many were baptised.
  6. The Coarb of Cluain-tuaiscirt of the Shannon,(u) who inaugurates the O'Kellys, and,
  7. The Coarb of Cluaín caoin Cairill.(v)


(o) [Referred to on MS p. 327] O'Dugan calls this Magh finn or the fair plain. It lies in the county of Roscommon, and was in latter ages called Tuath-Keogh. See pedigree of O'Kelly in the Co. of Roscommon. It comprised the parishes of Taghmaconnell and Camach-Brighde.

Magh Finn Fortail
D'a dtug Brighid beandochtain

(p) Now Clonfert in Siol-Anmchadha.

(q) Now Kilmeen 3½ miles East of Loughrea.

(r) Now Kiltullagh near Athenry.

(s) Now Kilcommadon near Aughrim.

(t) Now Cammagh, a parish in the Barony of Athlone and County of Roscommon.

(u) Now Cloontooskert near Ballinasloe.

(v) Now Cloonkeen-Carrell in the Barony of Tiaquin.


St. Brigit has the baptism of the race of Mainé, and although the baptism is not brought to her church {Camach} her Coarb there has power to collect the baptismal penny from the tribes; and the money thus collected is divided into three parts, of which herself {i.e. her Coarb at Brides well} has one (third), Druim dreastan,(w) another, and Cluain Eamhain(x) the other third part.

Every Manian gives a Screaball Ungtha ({i.e. the anointing Screaball}) to Crumther Aedh of Siol-Anmchadha.

The race of Carbry Crom are interred at Clonmacnoise, for which St. Kieran is paid tribute, and has seventeen ballys of land free in Hy-Many.(y)


(w) Now the parish of Drum near Athlone.

(x) Now the old church of Cloonoun in the parish of Drum aforesaid, where tradition ascribes its erection to St. Bridget. See Life of St. Bridget where it is stated (that) she went into Hy-Many and erected churches there.

(y) See Registry of Clonmacnoise among the Roscommon extracts.


The race of Mainé both men and women pay a Screaball Caethrach to Saint Greallan,(z) who presides over their battles, that is "the Bachall Ghreallain" or something similar is placed in the standard of the King of Hy-Many.(aa)

The queen sends yearly to St. Cairech Deargan(bb) seven garments, and every Manian girl sends her a penny along with the tribute of St. Kieran, to whom


(z) St. Greallan's well is situated in the parish of Kilclooney near Ballinasloe, and his Crozier called Bachall Ghreallain was in the possession of (the late) John Crannelly of Ahascragh until his death. His relatives have since mislaid, lost, destroyed or sold it.

(aa) i.e., The Crozier of St. Greallan, or some other relic of that Saint is placed in the standard of the prince of Hy-Many for which reason that Saint was said to preside over the battles of the territory.

(bb) St. Cairech Deargan was a virgin and patroness of the church of Cloonburren in the parish of Moor, & lying immediately to the west of Clonmacnoise whither St. Kieran's tribute was sent.

[In pencil on unnumbered sheet between pp. 330 and 331:]

Extract from Mr. O'Donovan's letter dated July 11th/42: We have discovered an ancient life of St. Grellan, the patron saint of the O'Kelly's of Hy-Many, which mentions several places in the County of Galway {See origl. in Cork Memms.}


they render all the dues formerly paid to {the Coarb] of St. Patrick, when the district extending from Glin-Patrick to Glaisi Uair(cc) belonged to St. Cairell, and thence to the Shannon to Saints Greallan and Patrick.(dd)(dd)

The enslaved tribes of Hy-Many who were vassals. 1. The Delvins whose country extends from Ath liac(ee) to where the River Suck issues from the well in Sliabh Formaili. 2. The Catrugii of the Suck extending from Tuaim Cathruigh upper to Portaibh Fidigi, and on each side of the Suck. 3. The Corca Moncha.(ff) 4. The Dal Druithne and 5. The men of Moy Sencheneoil until noble tribes were established in their place.


(cc)q? the Abhainn Uar near Elphin?

(dd) i.e. The Hy-Maine pay no tribute to St. Patrick now having transferred it to St. Kieran. While they did pay him tribute he and St. Greallan presided over the district extending from Glaisi Uair to the Shannon.

(ee) Now Beal átha liag at Lanesborough not Athleague.

(ff) This must be the present Corca Moccha.


The arch chiefs of Hy-Many had power to encrease the rents of these tribes at pleasure. Among the vassals may be also reckoned Munter Macon, and the O'Mulfinens fos their being in exile.(gg)

There are likewise in those parts Ballys of the Firvolgs which we have not enumerated who are vassals to the chiefs & who were (are?) serfs and followers of the princes of Hy-Many The Cadanaigh of the Feadha(hh) and their tribes and the remnant of the Firvolgs are the hereditary aes feadhma of Hy-Many.


(gg) Duald Mac Firbis in speaking of the plebeian tribes of Ireland states that the sons of the nobility often lost their rank for their crimes.

(hh) The Feadha the Les Ffayes of the Inquisitions was in latter times the Country of O'Naghtan. It is situated in the Barony of Athlone in the Co. of Roscommon and comprizes the parish of Drum and others in its vicinity.


From Lathach gearr lara to Cladh Caradh is on (under) the anarg of Mac Egan. The Hy-Fiachrach Finn and the race of Sogan have the taisigheacht Scuir.

The Hy-Fiachrach Firm have O'Kelly's office of Door-keepers to the King of Connaught.

The Dal Druithne have O'Conor's taisigheacht Allaidh in the place of O'Kelly.

O'Huran of Cluain Rois(ii) has the office of Butler to the arch-chief without qualification. The O'Loman's preside over his banquets {or drinking parties or feasts).

The Clann Indreachtaigh, the Siol-Brain and Siol-Aililla and their tribes have the office of Cul Coimhed.(jj)

The Clann-Flahoola have the taisigheacht Ealla, with the keeping of the goblets, chessboards, rings, gold and silver.(kk)


(ii) Now Cluain Rois anglice Clonrush in the Bar: of Leitrim in Moenmoy near Loch Dergderc.

(jj) ? meaning. I do not understand some of these technical terms. We want a Law Glossary.

(kk) Taiseach Ealla must signify a treasurer.


The Clann Breasail {the O'Donnellans} have the keeping of the arms (weapons) and battle-dresses, and it is theirs to respond to every general challenge of combat sent to the Hy-Manians from distant (exteri) territories.

The race of Cruimthan Caol, that is O'Cruffan and the Clann-Egan preside over all those who revenge the dishonors (insults) of the Hy-Manians, and it is theirs to marshal the battalions and to stand in the place of the arch-chief in the contest.

It is around the Sogans that all go into the conflict, for they are uahe battle-props to all.

The Aes Breangair have the Rachtus {office of lawgivers) of the arch-chief, and the Hy-Draighnen of Ard-na-gcno distribute justice to the tribes.

The Cruffans have the keeping of the hounds.


The O'Toohys of Aughrim (Eachdroma) and the Hy-Baodhain of Badhna have the (his) iron.

The Clanna-Indreachtaigh have the door-keeping of the arch-chief; but the Hy-Brain had it originally.

The Clann-Dermot {Mac Egans} the Hy-Cormac of Moenmoy and the O'Meehins Coarbs of Cloontooskert inaugurate or depose the arch-chief at the instance of (by the permission of) the Hy-Many.

The Sogans have his taisigheacht Scuir.(ll)

The Kinel-Aedha have the training (rearing) of his horses.

The inhabitants of South Echtghe have the rearing (feeding) of his hounds.(mm)


(ll) i.e., the power of deciding on an armistice.

(mm) South Echtghe is in the County of Clare according to Beaufort's map., but the inhabitants of Coill O'bfiachrach think that it is all in the County of Galway. Echtghe lies between Loughrea and Lough Greine. {See Map}


The Dal Druithne have the carriage of the wines from the harbors of the west to the mansions of the arch-chief.

The O'Docowlans have the building of the seats (dwellings), both houses and taobh-Comach at the upper (southern) mansions of the arch-chief, and the Bolg-tuath of Baghna(nn) have the building of his houses at the lower (northern) seats.

The triocha chead of Callow have his stewardship in collecting and forcing (distraining) rents.

The Cruffans proclaim his battles.

The inhabitants of the north part of Fiodh Monach(oo) have his otter-hunting & fishing.(pp)


(nn) i.e., the Firvolgic families of Slieve Baun in the County of Roscommon.

(oo) The parish of Kilbride in the County of Roscommon is in this district.

(pp) i.e., to hunt the otters and attend the fisheries of Hy-Many was the duty of this people.


The Bolgs of Echtghi have the feeding and keeping of his horses.

The Cathragians {of the Suck} are bound to perform (do) every work he requires himself or wishes to bestow on others, on condition that they be not driven from their lordship.

His Cró Catha, his tairisi, his stores, and his hostages are kept in Bréadach.

The O'Longargans of Baile na Banabai(qq) are his harpers, and the O'Sidachans are his trumpeters (cornaireagha).

The King of Cashel is bound to keep him in his place as King and to protect him, for it is the guarantee of the King of Cashel that keeps (defends) the King of Hy-Many against the Siol-Muireadhaigh, for which reason the king of Hy-Many is solemnly bound to proclaim battle on the Eoganachts.


(qq) now Ballynabanaby near Kilconnell, see my letter.


The subsidy of the king of Connaught to the King of Hy-Many, for little of the rents of the former goes in presents, as was said

The King of Hy-Many, the hero
Is entitled to ten steeds, brought across the briny waves
To ten foreigners for acts of vengeance (anger) in the west
To ten standards and ten Cloaks.(rr)

(rr) This is not quoted from the book of rights, which (for it) differs widely from it.

Dlighidh rí Hua Máine, in meand
Reacht m-bruith reacht ngabhra tar ghleann
Reacht coin fri coradh sealga
Is seacht n-inair urrdhearg.
To The King of Hy-Many the illustrious is entitled
To seven garments, seven horses, across the glen (sea)
Seven greyhounds for hunting
And seven deep red tunics.

Lib. Lec. fol. 187.


Original Irish of the tract above translated from page 69 to 84, [i.e. MS pp. 323-338]

[Hand of E. O'Curry:]BOOK OF LEACAINfol. 92. a.
Copy of original manuscript page.
Copy of original manuscript page.
Copy of original manuscript page.
Copy of original manuscript page.

From this tract it appears that Hy-Many was a very extensive territory comprising a part of Slieve Baun in the County of Roscommon and the greater part of Slieve Echtghe in the County of Galway. Its exact boundaries are thus given in a MS. in the Library of Trinity College Dublin, H. 3, 18, p. 412.


It contains seven triocha's, seven tuathas, seven ballys and seven half ballys. Its boundaries run as follows: from Cluain tuaiscirt na Sinna to Airenna, thence to Rinn duin, thence to Rinn Cleathchair, thence to Athluain {Athlone} thence to Snamh da én {Cloonburren} thence to Ath Crocha {Shannon harbour} thence to Lusmagh, thence to Dergderc {Loughderg} thence to Grian' thence {northwards} to Suidhe Finn {Seefin} thence to Athenry, from Athenry to Umnaigh, thence to Ath an t-Salainn, thence to Tir-macTréana, thence


to Eiscir alaing, thence to Ath-Mogha {now Ballymoe on the Suck} thence to Sidh-Neanta and from Sidh neanta, till you go to the Shannon again.

The same boundaries are more distinctly pointed out in a poem treating of the Country and genealogical history of the Hy-Manians preserved in the same library H l. 15. page 871. That portion of it relating to the territories and boundaries of Hy-Many is here transcribed and translated.

Ui Maine ó Mháine mór
O raibhe a bunath biothmhór,
Agus Criomhthuinn saor ar soin
O Criomhthuinn caol mac Breasoil
Seacht dtriocha, seacht dtuatha seacht de
Seacht m-baile, seacht leathbhaile
Gabhair Máine mor fá seach
Co coir cona ghenealadh
Ó Cluain Tuaiscirt tíghe tair
Co haireanoch ard angbaith
Is ó aireanach dur dil
Co rinn duinn sgo Rinn Cleachair

Agus assoin go h-Ath-Luain
'S go snamh da éin co caomh uaill
Agus co h Ath Crocha cain
'S go Lusmhagh mor i Mumhain
Agus go Deirgdheirg gan gai
Agus go gréin Inrechtaigh
'S go Suidhe Finn seacha anuas
'S d'át na ríog co rinn luas
Is go Muigh Muaidhe cen roinn
'S go háth athaidh an tsalainn
Is láimh re Tir Mic Tréana
Damh is dibh fri h-Áin-Mheadha
Agus as sin seachat sios
Go hEisgir Álainn cen scíos
Is go h-Ath Mogha a Muigh
Is go Ceann Cora cobhsaith
Go dteit go Sídh Neanta soir
Is go Sionainn séanta sruithghil
Ag sin timchioll da
Go himgheárr is co fada
Fearann Mháine Mhóir amach
Cóir ro ghabh a ghenealach
The Hy-Manians, from Maine mor
Have their great origin deduced
And the Cruffans, a noble tribe
Have sprung from Crimthan Caol, the son of Breasal,
Seven treuca's, seven tuaths too,
Seven Ballys and seven halfballys
Were (justly) possessed by Maine mor
And respectively (or successively) by his progeny,
From Cloontooskert house at the east(a)
To the lofty and bold Aireanach(b)
And from Aireanach, the hard, the lovely (beautiful)
To Randown;(c) thence to Cleachair(d)
From thence to sweet Athlone(e)
To Snamh dá én(f) the beautifully grand (co caomh-uaill!!)
To the delightful ford of Croch(g)
And thence to great Lusmagh(h) in Munster
To Dergdesc(i) without a doubt
From thence to Grian(j) Inreachtaigh
Northwards then to Seefin(k)
And quickly on to Athenry.(l)
Thence to the plain of Muaidh(m) without division
On to the ford of Ath an tsalainn
Thence close by Tir Mac Tréano
We pass by the famous hill of Meádha(n)
From thence downwards (i.e. northwards)
To Esker Alainn, {be not wearied} And Out to the ford of Mogha(o)
And on to victorious Ceann Cora,(p)
Until you reach Sheenanta(q) eastwards
And the clear and fertile stream of Shannon(r)
Such is the ambit of this region
It is not narrower nor wider
Of this land of Maine Mor
Which his race have justly possessed.


(a) [Referred to on MS p. 346] This is certainly the Cloontooskert in the County of Roscommon near Lanesborough.

(b) [Referred to on MS p. 346] Aireanach, a piece of land at Lough Ree.

(c) [Referred to on MS p. 346] The celebrated peninsula running into Lough Ree. It is now generally called St. John's.

(d) [Referred to on MS p. 346] Another point running into Lough Ree.

(e) [Referred to on MS p. 346] The famous ford of Athlone, the pass (trajectus) into Connaught.



(f) [Referred to on MS p. 346] Snámh dá én, alveus (natatio) duorum avium, was the ancient name of that part of the Shannon opposite Cloonburren in the parish of Moor and Co. Roscommon.

(g) [Referred to on MS p. 346] Ath Croch is frequently referred to as a ford on the Shannon over which armies passed out of Siol-Anmchadha into Delvin Mac Coghlan. It must be in the immediate vicinity of Shannon harbour, but I could not learn in any part of Siol-Anmchadh that the name is still retained.

(h) [Referred to on MS p. 346] Lusmagh is the name of a parish in the King's County, and though situated on the east side of the Shannon it was a part of Siol-Anmchadha or O'Madden's Country, and is (now) a part of the diocese of Clonfert, all which was comprehended in Hy-Many. Lusmagh was on the frontiers of Munster but never in that province. See my letter on Feara Ceall and Ely O'Carroll.



(i) [Referred to on MS p. 346] Now the great expanse of the Shannon called Lough Derg. The present tradition among the men of Cruffan near Castlekelly is that the Country of Tir-Maineach extended from Lough Ree at Lanesborough to Lough Derg on the borders of Munster.

(j) [Referred to on MS p. 346] Grian. This was the extreme Southern Boundary of Hy-Many. At the year 1536 the Annals of the Four Masters speak of the territory of Hy-Many as extending from Caraidh {on the north} to Grian {on the south}. As we learn from the tract above translated that a part of Slieve Echtghe was in this territory, it is very rational to suppose that by Grian is here meant


the River Grian which flows out of Lough Greine and falls into Lough Derg in the Shannon.

(k) [Referred to on MS p. 346] Suidhe Finn now anglicised Seefin, a mound in a townland of the same name in the parish of Killogilleen and about 4 miles west of Loughrea. There is an old Castle in the same townland, which also goes by the name of Seefin.

(l) [Referred to on MS p. 346] Ath na riogh, the ford of the Kings, the celebrated walled town of Athenry, ten miles east of Galway.

(m) [Referred to on MS p. 347] Magh Muaidh is the plain lying between the hill of Cnoc Muaidhe {Knock Moy} and the hill of Knockdoe.

(n) [Referred to on MS p. 347] The conspicuous hill of Knock Máá 5¼ miles to the South west of the town of Tuam.

(o) [Referred to on MS p. 347] Ath Mogha, i.e. the ford of Mogha, now Ballymoe on the River Suck, a well known little town.

(p) (q) (r) [Referred to on MS p. 347] Ceann Cora, Sidh neanta and to the Shannon. This boundary line extended across the County of Roscommon, thro' the half Barony of Ballymoe, [and] the parish of Kilbride until it struck the Shannon near Cloontooskert. Sidh Neanta is Mullach na Síte or Fairy hill near Drumdaff on the southern extremity of O'Hanly's Country.


From the foregoing documents it appears that Hy-Many originally comprised the territory of Clann-Konnoo and Corc-Moe and a considerable part of the country in the County of Roscommon which in latter ages belonged to the Siol Muireadhaigh or O'Conors; but we have no historical monuments to shew at what period the Siol-Muireadhaigh encroached so far on the des-cendants of Many so far as to fix the O'Finaghtys in the Barony of Ballymoe, and other tribes in Fiodh-monach, a part of ancient Hy-Many lying north of the town of Roscommon.


We have no documents sufficiently minute to enable us to divide Hy-Many into the seven territories of which it originally consisted, but we can glean sufficient evidence from the documents above translated, as well as from many passages


in the Irish Annals to shew the situation and, with considerable accuracy, the extent also of the grand divisions of it which remained down to the period of the formation of baronies, and which are traditionally known at this day. These are,


The name of this territory is still vividly remembered in the country, and described by the natives, as extending from Mount-Talbot to Mount Bellew and from Creggs to Castle Blakeney or Caltragh in the parish of Killasolan, and as comprising the parishes of Killian, Kilroran, Ballynakill, Killasolan and part of Athleague.


The locus of the country of the Clan Breasail or O'Donnellans is still pointed out by


the ancient castle of Ballydonnellan, which has been the seat of the O'Donnellan for many centuries, and by the fragment of their ancient possessions still retained by Arthur DonneIlan Esq, of said castle.


We have no clue to the locus of this territory but the townland of Ballydoogan in the parish of Kilmeen to the East of Lough-Reagh. It is probable that it was (the) seat of the head of this family and his territory (which) consisted of 12 ballys lay around it.


This was the tribe name of the Mac Egans but we have no accurate idea of their locality unless we are guided by the Castle which Cormac Mac Egan built in


the parish of Cloonberrin, concerning which see my letter on that parish at Tuam.


The name of this territory is still remembered in the Country. It seems to have comprized all the Barony of Kilconnell and that part of the Barony of Clonmacowen lying north of Cloontooskert. The seat of O'Kelly of Callow is still shewn near Kilconnell, and the tract on Hy-Many above translated describes it as extending from the Bog called Moin Inraideach to Cluain tuaiscirt na Sionna. See my letter on this subject written at Loughrea.


This little territory was otherwise called Magh Finn or the fair plain and in more recent times Tuath- Keogh, or


Keogh's country. It comprized the parishes of Taghmaconnell and Cammagh Bhrighde in the County of Roscommon. See my letter from Athlone on the extent of Keogh's Country.


After the English power had destroyed the Kingly sway of O'Kelly the Siol-Anmchadha or O'Maddens became entirely independent of him, and their country which bore their tribe name became a distinct Irish territory. This territory comprised the abbey of Meelick, the Cathedral church of Clonfert, and the castles of Brackloon and Longphort, after the latter of which it was called the barony of Longford when the County of Galway was formed. According to O'Flaherty


and the tradition still existing in the country, the territory of Siol Anmchadha comprised the parish of Lusmagh on the east side of the Shannon in the King's County, and it is curious to observe that this parish belongs to the diocese of Clonfert, not to that of Meath. O'Flaherty ['s] words are:

Cormac, the son of Carbry Crom and great great grandson of Dallan, had Eugenius Fionn and Eugenius Buac. From the former O'Kelly, lord of Imania is descended; from the latter O'Madden is sprung, proprietor of Sil-Anmchad (in the County of Galway) and Lusmagh at the other side of the Shannon. Anmchad, the son of Eugenius Buac has given the name of Siol-Anmchadh to the possessions of his posterity which are situate in the County of Galway, opposite Leinster, being divided from it by the River Shannon.

Ogygia, part III, c. 76.

The following Annals of Sil Anmchadha are literally translated from the Four Masters.


[Hand of a scrivener]


A.D. 949. Siol-Anmchadha was devastated by Callaghan and the Men of Munster.

A.D. 1006. Cuconnaght, the Son of Dunadha, chief of Siol-Anmchada, was killed by Morogh, the Son of Brien.

A.D. 1008. Madudhan, Lord of Siol-Anmchada was killed by his own Brother.

A.D. 1021. Cucaille, the Son of Morcan was slain by the Siol Anmchada.

A.D. 1027. Donogh, the Son of Brian led an army into Ossory, where his people were defeated, and Gadhra, the Son of Dunadhaigh, Lord of Siol-Anmchada, Donnell, the Son of Senchan, Son of Flaherty Roydamna of Munster, Maelsechlin, the Son of Conor, Lord of Corcomroe, the two Sons of Cuilen Son of Conor Tanist and Lord of O'Conaill, the two Sons of Egerty Lord and Tanist of Eoganacht, Occan O'Cuire the Son of Anluain, Son of Kennedy together with many others not mentioned.

A.D. 1032. The son of Cuconnaught i.e. O'Dunadhaighe, Lord of Siol-Anmchada was slain.


A.D. 1050. Clonmacnoise was plundered three times in one quarter of a year, once by the Siol-Anmchada and twice by the Calraighe, assisted by the Sionachs {Foxes}.

A.D. 1069. The Son of the Son of Gadhra O'Dunadaigh i.e. the Lord of Siol-Anmchada was killed by O'Maddudhan.

A.D. 1085. The Conmaicne made a predatory incursion into Siol-Anchada, King Coningin Finn, the Son of Ualactain, and carried away innumerable Cattle.

A.D. 1095. Matodhan O'Madodhan, Lord of Siol-Anmchada, died.

A.D. 1131. Donnell O'Forg, Lord of Hy-Forgo fell by the Siol-Anmchada in Cliath.

A.D. 1141. O'Loughin sent a plundering party into Siol-Anmchada who were repulsed and O'Cane na Craoibhe Killed.


A.D. 1178. Awley McAwley ({of Calry an chala}) was killed by the Siol-Anmchadha.

A.D. 1201. Morogh O'Madden, chief of the half of Siol-Anmchadha, was wounded in the head by an arrow, and died of the wound.

A.D. 1207. Dermott O'Madden, Lord of Sil-Anmchadha, died.

A.D. 1235. Madden O'Madden, Lord of Siol-Anmchadha, died.

A.D. 1264. A great pillage was committed by the inhabitants of Dealbhna on the Siol-Anmchadha, and the five Sons of O'Madden were slain on the occasion.

A.D. 1347. Owen O'Madden, chief of Siol-Anmchadha, died and Morogh his Son assumed the chieftainship of Siol-Anmchadha.

"Siol-Anmchadha; Anmchadh, the son of Eugenius Buac has given the name of Silanmchad to the possessions of his posterity (the O'Maddens) which are situated in the County of Galway opposite Leinster, being divided from it by the River Shannon."

Ogygia, Vol II, pp. 283 and 284

A.D. 1355. Edmond, Son of William, who was Son of Richard {Burke} was slain by the Siol-Anmchadha.

A.D. 1403. O'Conor Don and Mortogh Bacach, the Son of Donnell Lord of Sligo marched into upper Connaught, with an army by which they acquired dominion over Siol-Anmchadha. They then proceeded to Clanrickard to assist Ulick, the Son of Richard {Burke} against the Hy-Manians so that they obtained power over both.


A.D. 1411. Owen, the Son of Morogh O'Madden, Lord of Siol-Anmchadha, died.

A.D. 1413. Cathal, the Son of Owen O'Madden Lord of Siol-Anmchadha, died.

A.D. 1451. Morogh O'Madden, Lord of Siol-Anmchadha, the most powerful man in his own territory, of mightiest arm and best jurisdiction, died.

A.D. 1475. Morogh, the Son of Owen O'Madden, Lord of Siol-Anmchadha, died.

A.D. 1523. Feradbach Boy O'Madden Tanist of Siol-Anmchadha was slain by the Army of O'Carroll.

A.D. 1545. The son of Mac William of Clanrickard {Thomas the heroic the Son of Ulick na gceann, who was Son of Richard, who was Son of Ulick of Cnoc Tuagh} made an incursion into Siol-Anmchadha. As soon as the inhabitants perceived him, they pursued him as far as Bealach-Tire-Ithain where he and twenty of the most distinguished of his people were slain by the people of Melaghlin Balbh.

A.D. 1546. O'Kelly and the descendants of Breasal O'Madden made an incursion into Siol-Anmchadha upon Melaghlin God O'Madden. The inhabitants of the Country pursued them and made an attack upon (them) but they wheeled round on their pursuers and slew more than forty of them. This territory and Ormond lost many Men in this battle.


A.D. 1549. Melaghlin God O'Madden, Tanist of Siol-Anmchadha, was slain by Melaghlin Modhardha O'Madden and his Kinsmen in revenge of the death of his father and mother.

A.D. 1554. Hugh, the Son of Anmohay O'Madden Lord of Siol-Anmchadh died, and John, the Son of Breasal O'Madden assumed his place.

A.D. 1556. O'Madden {John, the Son of Breasal} Lord of Siol-Anmchadha was slain by Breasal duff O'Madden upon which two Lords were placed over Siol-Anmchadha, viz, Breasal Duff and Melaghlin Modhardha.

A.D. 1557. As soon as the Lord chief Justice heard that the O'Connors of Ophaly were at Meelick he mustered an army to banish them from it, and conveyed Ships cannon to Athlone from thence he transported them in vessels {Boats or Ships} to Meelick, while he himself led his army through Bealach an fhothair, and by Lurgan Lusmhaighe. He afterwards took Meelick and Breac Chluain, slew Donogh, the Son of Colla, together with others of the warders, and then destroyed and ravaged the entire Country. The Sons of Melaghlin Balbh were banished from that Country together with the Rebels {vindictives}. The chief Justice left an English Constable at Meelick {Master Francis} and obtained hostages from the two O'Maddens,


viz: Melaghlin Modhardha and Breasal, and other Hostages from Mac Coghlan, viz: his Son and others, and thus was Siol-Anmchadha conquered. It is not easy to estimate or enumerate all who were destroyed on this occasion. These events took place three weeks before Lammas.

A.D. 1572. The president of Connaght, Sir Edward Piton issued a proclamation about the festival of Saint Patrick, commanding all those from Galway to Sligo who acknowledged the authority of the Queen to attend a court in Galway. This proclamation was obeyed by the Earl of Clanrickard and his Sons Ulick and John with the chiefs of their people as also the descendants of Richard Oge Burke, and Mac William Iochtair, viz, John Burke, the Son of Oliverus, who was Son of John, accompanied by all the lower Burkes {i.e. the Burkes of the lower part of Connaght}. The Dalcassians and their adherents also obeyed this proclamation. Upon their arrival before the president in Galway, the two Sons of the Earl of Clanrickard Ulick and John heard it rumoured that some violence was meditated and being terrified they secretly fled from the Town. As soon as the President had heard of their disappearance he made


Prisoners of the Chiefs of Clanrickard and left them in confinement in the Town, while he himself, with the Earl {the father of the two already referred to} whom he arrested, proceeded to Athlone, and thence to Dublin, where he left the Earl, and he then returned to Athlone by himself.

As soon as the Sons of the Earl had received intelligence of this, they ordered the Soldiers and hirelings of the neighbouring territories to repair to them without delay. The Summons was immediately attended to by the McSweenys of upper and lower Connaght and by the Clan Donnell Galloglach, who had many hundreds of Scots along with them. But before they had time to assemble together the president brought his forces and Soldiers with him to Galway, and took with him the Ordnance and all the forces of that Town to Achadh-na-n-Iubhar, the Castle of the Sons of Donall O'Flaherty. The president was induced to undertake this expedition by Morogh of the battle-axes, the Son of Tiege O'Flaherty and the Castle of Achadh-na-n-Iubhar was then in the possession of two of the descendants of Donall O'Flaherty. The President after having half destroyed the Town, took full possession of it, and left such portion of it as remained undestroyed to Morogh of


the battle-axes O'Flaherty. He then returned to Galway and passed through Clanrickard and Hy-Many to Athlone without coming to Battle or meeting opposition.

As soon as the forces already mentioned had repaired from every quarter to the Sons of the Earl they {i.e. the Sons of the Earl} and Mac William Burke {John the Son of Oliverus} entered into, and confirmed a league with each other, after which they proceeded in the first place to demolish the white-sided Towers and strong Castles of Clanrickard so that they destroyed the military strong holds of the Country from the Shannon to Burren, with the exception of a few only. They next plundered the district lying between the Rivers Suck and Shannon, and also the Feadha, and pillaged every person who was upon friendly terms with the English or connected with them (even) as far as the Gates of Athlone.

Afterwards Keeping the Shannon on the right hand they marched directly eastwards to Sliabh-Bagna-na-d-tuath, crossed the ferry of Anghaile, and burned Athleague. They proceeded to burn, lay waste, plunder and ravage every town they came to until they arrived in Westmeath, and among these towns


was Mullingar, from thence they marched to the Gate of Athlone and burned that part of the Town wh. lay at the Leinster side of the Bridge. They afterwards proceeded to Delvin Mac Coughlin and then came back to Siol-Anmchadha, and there was no chieftain of any district from the Mountain Echtge to the River Drobhaois whom they did not induce to join them in their depredations. They destroyed the walls of Athenry as also its houses of Stone and its Castle, and injured the Town to such a degree that it was difficult to rebuild it for a long time afterwards. They passed twice into West Connaght in despite of the inhabitants of Galway and of the English Soldiers who had been left there by the president to assist the warders of the Town; and they slew the Captain of these Soldiers at the west of the City. It was also against the will of the O'Flahertys that they made these two irruptions into the Country; and the exploits appear the greater as they had no road to pass through going or


returning excepting Ath-tire Oilein {Teryland} and on each occasion they committed great depredations and acts of pillage upon Morogh O'Flaherty.

A.D. 1580. See Cill Mac Duagh at this year, P. 56.

A.D. 1601. *** O'Donnell was the first who prepared to go on that expedition. Having left guards over his creights and all his people in the County of Sligo, he set out from Ballymoat in the very beginning of Winter. The following were among the chiefs who accompanied him on this occasion: O'Rourke {Brian oge, the Son of Brian}; the two Sons of John Burke, Mac Dermott of Moylurg; the Sept of O'Conor Roe; the O'Kelly, and the chiefs who had been banished from Munster in the last year and lived with in [sic] Tirconnell. These forces marched through the Country of Roscommon, through the East of the County of Galway & thro' Siol-Anmchadha to the Shannon. They were ferried across the Shannon at Ath-croch; they thence marched through Delvin


Mac Coughlan, & Fearkeall until they crossed the shoulder of Slieve Bloom into Hy-Cairin.

A.D. 1602. *** On the 9th night O'Sullivan and his people arrived at a Wood called Coll fhinne where they remained for two nights. Donogh, the Son of Carbry Mac Egan who lived who lived in the vicinity of this place commenced boldly to attack and fire upon O'Sullivan and his people. O'Sullivan advised him to desist, and as he would not he was at length obliged to kill him. Here finding no Cotts or Vessels in readiness they killed their Horses in order to eat and carry with them their flesh and to form Currachs of their Hides by placing them on pliant and elastic twigs (oziers). In these Currachs they crossed the green-waved Shannon at Ath-Coille Ruadhe, without loss or danger and landed on the other side in Siol- Anmchadha. From thence they passed on and on the Eleventh night arrived at Aughrim-O'Many. Upon their arrival at this place the tribes and inhabitants of the neighbouring lands flocked (assembled) after and before them, and


shouted out in every direction around them. Among those who came up with them on this occasion were the Son of the Earl of Clanrickard, {Thomas, the Son of Ulick, who was Son of Richard Saxonach} Mac-Coghlan {John Oge, the Son of John who was Son of Art} O'Madden {Donnell, the Son of John who was Son of Breasal} and his Son Anmchadh; some dexterous men of the O'Kellys, and many others not not [sic] enumerated, with their forces. O'Sullevan, O'Connor Kerry and William Burke {the Son of John na Seanna (Seamar!)} and their few forces {the entire not amounting fully to three hundred in numbers} were obliged to remain at Aughrim O'Many to fight, engage, and prove their valor in battle with the many hundreds who were oppressing and pursuing them.


[Hand of ]. O'Donovan resumed:]


O'Flaherty in Ogygia part III, c. 17 states that Loch riach {now Loughrea) is situated in the Barony of Moenmoy now Clanrickard in the County of Galway, and following him the Abbé Mageoghegan, who had some idea of the extent of Clanrickard, has laid down Moenmoy on his Map of the Dynasties of Connaught as comprising the Baronies of Leitrim, Loughrea, and Dunkellin. But both are decidedly wrong as can be directly proved from the documents above translated; for in the first place Moenmoy was included in Hy-Many which never extended farther to the west than Seefin and Athenry and therefore Moenmoy which was in it could (not) have contained the Barony of Dunkellin which extends westwards to the Bay of Galway; and in the second


place Clanrickard comprised six Baronies so that in any point of view Moenmoy and Clanrickard could not be considered coextensive. Dr. O'Brien in his Irish Dictionary has also copied this error of O'Flaherty.

We have nothing to prove the extent of this territory directly, as our annals, or other historical documents furnish no list of churches or other remarkable features situated in it, but we can form a tolerably correct idea of its situation and extent by induction. We learn, in the first place, from O'Dugan's topographical poem that the Hy-Cormaic of Moenmoy possessed the tract bordering on the Hy-Fiachrach, and from the Dinseanchus that Loch riach and Moyode two


well known places were within the territory of Moenmach. These facts point out at once whereabouts this territory was situated. We learn also from the Dinnseanchus that this was an extensive territory, for it speaks of four petty Kings or chieftains living in it, two on the northern and two on the southern side.

Ceithhri rig bádar sa muigh, &c.

Now when we discover the eastern boundary of the Country of the Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne with which Moenmoy was conterraneous and the western boundary of Siol-Anmchadha we shall see with considerable clearness that Moenmoy lay between them and comprised the Baronies of Loughrea and Leitrim, which, on the encreasing power of the Burkes were made a part of Clanrickard. O'Flaherty should have described Moenmoy


rather as a barony in Clanrickard than as Coextensive with that very extensive Earldom, which could not be called a barony as it comprised six baronies. Mageoghegan and O'Brien were no authorities on this subject, and should not be honoured with animadversion though quoted by many modern writers as if they were the only oracles of Irish topography

According to the Dinnseanchus this territory received its name from Moen {the son of Allguba} who was chief Barber to the sons of Milesius, who cleared this plain of wood at so early a period that chronology can scarcely calculate the century

Hé ro bearrad sunn ar tús
Nocho teandad cach treanrus
Fobárr saer na sluag sellaich
A gruad chaem ro cétbearraigh.
[In a different hand, on an unnumbered sheet:]
He was Barber at the first
Who shaved each Strong Chin
He was free Chief of the Shaving Host
A pleasant Cheek had this Chief Barber. D.H.

It is amusing to read of barbers shaving plains as well as chins. The Irish must have had barbers, otherwise the story would have no effect.

We learn from Shane O'Dugan that the O'Neachtans and O'Mullallys were the ancient chiefs of this territory wch. adjoined the country of the Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne. Both families are still numerous enough in the territory, but it appears from Irish history that both were removed from it at an early period, probably by Conor Moenmoy the son of Roderic O'Conor, who seems to have conquered it and a considerable portion of South Hy-Many, from which he received his cognomen {of Moenmoy.} O'Neachtain was about this period removed to the Fayes in the Barony of Athlone where his descendant is still a rich Tory, and O'Mullally to Conmaicne Kinel Dubhain near Tuam


where he possessed, according to tradition, 18 ballys of land of land on one of which called Tulnadal he built a Castle. The head of this family passed over to France after the battle of Aughrim, and distinguished himself very much in the French army, and tradition says that his son or grandson was created Count Lally Tulnadal. The family is now extinct in the male line, and strange to say a Revd. Mr. Lally an Englishman and a clergyman of the church of England is their supposed representative!

The Four Masters have collected very few ancient and less modern historical notices of this territory. The following are all that I can find in the extracts before me.

Anno Mundi 30501. Druim Bethe in Moenmoy is one of the Four three beautiful


hills about which a contention arose between Heber and Heremon, the two sons of Milesius.

The only name like it I can now find in the territory is Druminaveagh in the parish of Ballynakill, Bar: Leitrim.

Anno Christi 581. Aedh, the son of Suibhne chief of Maonmagh, died.

796. Catharnach, the son of Cathal Maonmaighe, died.

848. Cetadach, abbot of Clonmacnoiss died. He was of the Hy-Cormaic {0'Mullally's (postea)} of Maonmagh. A poet said that Cluain would never again see such an abbot.

1067. Teige O'Muiregan, Lord of Teffia was killed in Maenmagh by the Munter Hamain.

1235. Rickard, the son of William Burke with the English of Ireland passed thro' Maonmagh on their march from Ardcarna to Munster.

Quat. Mag.


Since the 13th century the history of Moenmoy will be find [sic] incorporated in that of Clanrickard of which it became a part. See Annals of Clanrickard and infra.

The following annals of Hy-Many extracted from the Four Masters will convey some idea of its general history. Its modern history must be gleaned from the English Inquisitions and other public documents. For the pedigree of O'Kelly see Extracts for the County of Roscommon.


[Hand of a scrivener:]

UI-MAINE {Hy-Maine}

A.D. 531. The Battle of Claonloch in Kenel Aodha was fought by Giobneann, chief of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, where Maine, the Son of Cearball was killed fighting in defence of Hy-Maine in Connaght.

A.D. 597. Brenain, the Son of Coirpe, Son of Fechin, Lord of Hy-Maine, died.

A.D. 600. Hugh Boy, chief of Hy-Maine was killed by Conall, the Son of Suibhne on the same day that he killed Hugh Slaine.

A.D. 623. The Battle of Carn Feradhaigh was fought (won) by Faibhe Flann over the Connacians, where Conall chief of Hy-Maine, Maeldub, Maelduin, Maolruain and Maolbrasail, with many nobles and plebeians besides were killed, and Guaire Aidhne routed from the place of the battle, so that it was of that it was said:

There were killed of the Connacians,
At Athcumma of the Six,
Maolduin, Maolruain, Maolcalggaigh,
Conall, Maoldub, Maolbresail.

A.D. 649. The battle of Airthear Sheola in Connaght was fought by Cenfaolad, the Son of Colgain, and by Maonach, the Son of Baoidhin Chief of Hy-Bruin, on which occasion Marcan, the Son of Tomein Chief of Hy-Maine was slain.

A.D. 673. Cendfaola, the Son of Blathmac, who was Son of Dermott, after a reign of four years as monarch of Ireland was killed by Fionnachta Fledach at the battle of Aircealtra, at Tigh-Ua-Maine. (Now probably Attymany in the Parish of Cloon keen Kerrill in the Barony of Tiaquin, Co. Galway.)

A.D. 711. Seachnusach, Chief of Hy-Maine, died.

A.D. 738. Dlutach, the Son of Fitceallach, Lord of Hy-Maine, died. A.D.

745. Cathal Maenmaighe, Lord of Hy-Maine, died.

A.D. 750. Flaithniadh, the Son of Tnutha, Lord of Hy-Maine, died.

A.D. 751. The battle of Beall-Cro was gained by Criomthainn over Deabhna hui Maine, in which Find, the Son of Airb Lord of Delvin was killed at Tibrid Finn, accompanied by the slaughter of the Delvians; and it is from that circumstance that Lochan Beal Cro and Tiopraid Finn are so called. For it was


defending the Triochait Cet between the Suck and the Shannon against them that the Hymanians were, because that was the Triocha Cet of Delvin. It was of that Battle was said:

The wolfish martial battle of Bealach-Cro-
Mournful was the expedition of the Delvians thither,
Criomthann the warlike and faithful it was who gained,
Over the wounded Delvians of Nuadat.
Finn the Son of Airb sovereign (Ardrí) of Delvin
Was there wounded by Keen darts
Of the fierce battle (battalion) he was the Chief
Until he was slain at Tioprait Finn.

A.D. 767. Hugh Ailfhin, Lord of Hy-Maine was killed.

A.D. 770. The battle of Achaidh-Liag was fought between the Hy-Briuin and Hy-Maine in which the Hymanians were defeated.

A.D. 780. The Grandson of Daimhin, Lord of Hy-Maine died.

A.D. 782. Conall, the Son of Fidgaile, Lord of Hy-Maine, died.

A.D. 786. Amalgaidh, Lord of Hy-Maine, died.

A.D. 794. Ailill, the Son of Indreacht, Lord of Hy-Maine of Connaght, died.


A.D. 816. The Battle of Rath Faradh was gained by the chieftains of Hy-Briuin, Dermott, the Son of Tomaltach, and Maolcotaigh, the Son of Fogartach, over the Lord of Hy-Maine, Cathal, the Son of Morogh, at Dealbhna Nuadhat, between the Rivers Suck and Shannon, at which place Cathal was slain together with many other nobles.

A.D. 834. Clonmacnois was violated by Cathal, the Son of Ailill, Lord of Hy-Maine upon the prior, Flann, the Son of Flathertach of the tribe of Hy-Forggo in Munster, and he slew him in (on) the Shannon. As restitution for which the rule of seven churches and great gifts were given to Saint Ciaran {i.e. to the Church of Clonmacnois}.

A.D. 844. Cathal, the Son of Ailill, Lord of Hy-Many, died.

A.D. 883. Maolpadraig, Abbot of Clonmacnois, died. He was of the Tribe of Hy-Maine.

A.D. 904. Mughroin, the Son of Soclachan, Lord of Hy-Maine died.

A.D. 908. Sochlachan, the Son of Dermott, Lord of Hy-Maine died in holy orders.

A.D. 918. There was a great Slaughter of the Hy-Manians this year at Grean.


A.D. 931. The Battle of Duibhthir was gained by Amlaff Cendcairech {of the Scabby head} from Limerick, on which occasion (the) nobles of Hy-Maine were Slain.

A.D. 936. Morogh, the Son of Sochlacan, Lord of Hy-Maine, died.

A.D. 960. Morogh, the Son of Hugh, Lord of Hy-Maine in Connaght died.

A.D. 971. The battle of Ceis-Corainn was fought between Morogh the grandson of Flaherty {surnamed of the Eagle-Knee} King of Ailich and Cathal, the Son of Teige, King of Connaght, in which Cathal himself was killed, together with Gebendach, the Son of Hugh, Lord of Hy-Maine; Teige the Son of Mortogh Chief of Hy-Diarmata, Morogh, the son of Flann, son of Glethneachan, chief of Clann-Morogh, and Seir, the grandson of Flaherty and a very great number beside; and Morogh devastated all Connaght afterwards.

A.D. 985. Muirghes, the Son of Donnell, Lord of Hy-Maine was Killed.

A.D. 1003. A battle was fought between Teige O'Kelly assisted by the Hy-Manians, and the Hy-Fiachrians of Aidhne


assisted by the people of West Connaght on which occasion Giolla Ceallaigh, the Son of Comoltan O'Clery, Lord of Hy-Fiachrach, Conor Mac Ubbain, Ceandfaola Mac Rory and many others were slain. Finn, the Son of Marcan Tanist of Hy-Maine was killed in the heat of the battle.

A.D. 1011. Ailill, the Son of Geibendagh, Roydamna of Hy-Maine died.

A.D. 1013. Teige O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maine was killed in the battle of Clontarf.

A.D. 1014. Maolisa, the Son of the Lord of Hy-Maine was killed at Iubhar Arnum by the men of Teffia.

A.D. 1015. Gebhendach, the Son of Hugh, Lord of Hy-Maine, was killed by the Hy-Manians themselves.

A.D. 1018. O'Geibennaigh, the grandson of Gevenach, Tanist of Hy-Maine was killed.

A.D. 1019. Donnell, the Son of Muireadhach, Lord of Hy-Maine was killed.

A.D. 1030. Connor, the Son of Teige O'Kelly, (Lord of Hy-Maine) was killed by the Teffians.


A.D. 1037. Cearnacan Gott was killed by O'Flannagan {i.e. Sitrem} of the tribe of Hy-Maine.

A.D. 1048. The Roydamna's {heir apparent} of Hy-Maine made a predatory incursion into Delvin, where all the royal chieftains were killed, viz: O'Maolruana, O'Flannagan, O'Clery & O'Teige, together with Mac Buadhachan, the Roydamna of Delvin.

A.D. 1065. Clonmacnois was plundered by the Conmaicne and the Hy-Manians.

The following were the chiefs on that occasion, viz: Hugh, the Son of Niall O'Rourke and Dermott the Son of Teige O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maine. Clonfert was plundered by the same party on the following day. O'Connor {Hugh} arrived to meet them, and he defeated them through the Miracle of God, of Kieran, and of Brenan whose Churches they had plundered; and he followed up the slaughter on them, so that they were compelled to Abandon their Vessels, together with the Ship which they had carried from the western ocean across the middle of Connaght to the Shannon to Hugh.


A.D. 1074. Donogh O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maine was killed by his own Brathair Teige, the Son of Conor O'Kelly in Inis-Locha-Caolain.

A.D. 1114. Torlogh O'Connor banished Donnell O'Connor his brother into Munster, Donnell was afterwards Captured by the Hymanians and delivered into the hands of Torlogh.

A.D. 1135. Morogh O'Melaghlin King of Tara placed his fleet on the Shannon and on Loughree and the Siol-Muireadhaigh with their King i.e. Conor, the Son of Torlogh and the Hymanians with their Lord {i.e., Teige O'Kelly} until both left hostages.

A.D. 1142. Conor, the Son of Torlogh, and the Hy-Manians plundered Kenel-Forggo and carried away Cows innumerable.

A.D. 1147. The victory of Athlone was gained over Donnell, the Son of Torlogh O'Connor and the Hy-Maníans, by the men of Teffia, on which occasion the grandson of Amlaff O'Flinn with many others were slain.


A.D. 1180. A Battle was fought between Connor Moinmoy, the Son of Roderick O'Connor and Connor O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maine, in which were slain Connor O'Kelly, his son Teige, his Brother Dermott, Maelseaghlain the Son of Dermott O'Kelly, and Teige, the Son of Teige O'Conor.

A.D. 1186. Morogh, the Son of Teige O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maine was slain by Connor Moinmoy.

A.D. 1187. Giolla-Iosa {Gelasius} the Son of Olioll O'Breen Seach-Abb of Hy-Maine, a Historian, Scribe and Poet, died.

A.D. 1224. Maoilseachlainn, the Son of Teige O'Kelly Lord of Hy-Maine died.

A.D. 1225. A House was attacked and taken upon the Son of Teige O'Kelly, {Lord of Hy-Maine} and upon Ardgal his Brother by the Sons of Teige O'Kelly, and both were burned.

A.D. 1235. See Conmaicne Mara at this year, P. 62.

A.D. 1250. Felim O'Connor came from the North with a numerous Army which he led from Tirone; he marched to Breifny and thence to the Tuathas. Connor, the Son of Tiernan, accompanied him thence into Hy-Many and expelled Torlogh from Connaght who went over to the English again. Then Felim collected all the moveable property of Connaght and proceeded with it


across Sliabh Seaghsa, but the English dispatched messengers after him, and a peace being concluded between them his Kingdom was again restored to Felim.

A.D. 1267. A predatory incursion was made by Mac William against O'Connor; so that he and his army plundered Hy-Maine and Clann-Uadach.

A.D. 1268. Connor O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maíne, died.

A.D. 1295. Donall O'Kelly, Lord of Hy maine, one of the most judicious advisers of his time died in the habit of a Monk, and was interred in the Monastery of Knockmoy.

A.D. 1307. The greater portion of the English of Roscommon were slain at Ath-easgrach-Cuan by Donogh Muimhneach O'Kelly Lord of Hy-Maine, where Philip Muinder {Montyre} John Muinder and Maue Driu {Mathew Drew} and many others whose names are not mentioned were slain, and Dermott Gall Mac Dermott, Cormac Mac-Ceithearnaigh of Roscommon were taken prisoners, but afterwards set at liberty. They afterwards made peace; the cause of this enmity was the burning of the Town by Edmond Butler {the Deputy of Ireland M.G.}. Donogh O'Kelly


after having performed these exploits died, and his death was not the death of a Coward but the death of a man of prowess and valour, a bestower of jewels and Riches.

A.D. 1316. Felim O'Connor and the chieftains of Connaght mustered a very great army. Among those chieftains were the following viz: Donogh O'Brien with the chiefs of Munster; O'Melaghlin, King of Meath; Ulgarg O'Rourke, Lord of Breifny; O'Ferrall, Lord of Annally, Teige O'Kelly Lord of Hy-Maine; Magnus, the Son of Donall O'Connor Tanist of Connaght; Art O'Hara, Lord of Leyny; and Brian O'Dowd, Lord of Tireragh. They all marched to Ath-na-riogh {Athenry}. To oppose these the English of West Connaght mustered their forces viz: William Burke, the Baron Mac Feorais {Bermingham} Lord of Athenry, and the greater part of the English of Leath-Chuinn. A fierce and spirited engagement took place between them, but in the end after great displays of bravery on both sides, the Irish were defeated.

A.D. 1322. Gilbert O'Kelly Lord of Hy-Maine died.

A.D. 1327. Gormleith, the daughter of Mac Dermott and wife of Magnus, the Son of Donall O'Connor {who was for some time Tanist of Connaght} and afterwards the wife of Connor O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maine and afterwards again the wife of Fergall O'Hara,


Lord of Leyney, died, after having achieved the victory of penance.

A.D. 1329. Cathal, the Son of Hugh, who was Son of Owen O'Connor was forcibly expelled from the Feadha (Fayes) {weeds} and from Tir Maine by order of Walter de Burgo to the O'Kelly's and the other tribes of Hy-Maine.

A.D. 1339. Roderick O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maine was slain by Cathal, the Son of Hugh O'Connor on his return from the House of O'Connor to his own residence.

A.D. 1340. A war broke out between the Hy-Manians, viz: between Teige, the Son of Teige O'Kelly {to whom Torlogh O'Connor King of Connaght had given the chieftainship of Hy-Maine} and William, the Son of Donogh Muimhneach O'Kelly. William was banished from Hy-Maine, but although he quitted the Country he was pursued by Teige O'Kelly with his brothers and adherents, but as soon as they had reached a place advantageously situated for fighting William and his people turned round upon them, and a fierce battle was fought, in which Donogh, the Son of Hugh O'Kelly was killed, and Teige O'Kelly, after having been wounded was


taken prisoner; he afterwards died of his wounds.

A.D. 1343. A great victory was achieved by the Birminghams and the Clanrickards over the Hy-Manians. Eleven of the nobles of Hy-Maine together with Connor Carbhach O'Kelly were slain in the Conflict.

A.D. 1353. The Monastery of Kilconnell, in the Diocese of Clonfert in Connaght, was founded for Franciscan Friars by William O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maine.

A.D. 1364. Donall, the Son of Roderic O'Kelly, heir apparent of Hy-Maine died.

A.D. 1366. A great war broke out between the English of Connaght, viz: Mac William Burke, and Mac Maurice {Fitzgerald}. The Clann Maurice were banished from his, the Country of the latter of the latter by Mac William and Mac Maurice fled for protection to the Clann Rickard. Mac William, Hugh O'Connor, King of Connaght, and William O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maine marched with an army to upper Connaght against the Clann Ríckard where they remained nearly three months engaged in mutual hostilities until at last


Mac William subdued the Clanrickard in consequence of which their hostages were delivered up to him and he returned to his Country in triumph.

A.D. 1368. William, the Son of Donogh Muimhneach O'Kelly Lord of Hy-Maine was taken prisoner by O'Madden and by the Grandson of Owen (Mac Mic Eoghain {i.e. chief of Clonmacnoise}). On the same day Donall, the Son of Connor O'Kelly, and Ardgal oge O'Conceannain (Concannon) were slain by O'Madden.

A.D. 1371. Mac Feorais {Birmingham} was taken prisoner by O'Kelly and the Hy-Manians, and Richard, his Son and heir was killed.

A.D. 1372. John More O'Dugan, a learned Historian and Ollav of Hy-Maine, died at Rinn-duin, among the Monks of John the Baptist having first received the Sacraments of extreme Unction and penance.

A.D. 1374. Theobald Burke, the heir of Mac-William, was slain by the Hy-Mainians.

A.D. 1375. A war broke out between Roderic O'Conor King of Connaght and Maelseaghlin O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maine, in which O'Conor subdued the Hy-Mainians.


A.D. 1377. Roderic O'Conor defeated Mac William Burke, and Melaghlin O'Kelly Lord of Hy-Maine at Roscommon. In the conflict were slain Richard Burke brother of Mac William, Donall the Son of Cathal oge O'Conor, Teige the Son of Teige O'Kelly, O'Maindin {Manning (Mannion)} chief of Sodain, Mac Dowells, Gallowglass and many others. {Paul Mannion of Tuam is the present chief of the name, JO'D }

A.D. 1379. Richard O'Dugan died. He was the intended Ollave of Hy-Many.

A.D. 1381. William, the Son of Donogh Muimhneach O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maine, the most illustrious, famous and renowned of his tribe. The man who had given a general invitation of hospitality to the Clergy of Ireland, and who had paid them their full demands died a venerably aged Man after having performed penance and Maelseaghlin, his son assumed his place.

A.D. 1385. O'Connor Roe, Mac Dermott, the Clann Muireheartaigh and the Chiefs of Connaght, marched with a very great Army into Hy-Maine, and burned the Town of the Son of Edmond O'Kelly. On this occasion William Boy O'Naghtan was slain.

A.D. 1392. O'Conor Don, joined by the greater part of the chiefs of Connaght, marched with a great army into Hy-Maine, and burned


and devastated the whole territory; O'Conor Roe pursued them and Cathal, the Son of Hugh O'Rourke, who was in the rear of O'Conor Don's army was, after the loss of many of his people, taken prisoner by O'Conor Roe.

A.D. 1393. Brian, the Son of Melaghlin O'Kelly, Tanist of Hy-Maine, died.

A.D. 1395. Roderick O'Kelly, heir apparent to the Lordship of Hy-Maine, died.

A.D. 1401. Melaghlin O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maine, a truly hospitable and humane man, died, and Connor an Abbay, his son, assumed the Lordship after him.

A.D. 1403. Conor Anabaidh, the Son of Melaghlin O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maine, the Serpent of his tribe and of all the Irish people, died, after having received the Sacraments of Extreme Unction and Penance, and was interred in the Monastery of St. John the Baptist in Hy-Maine.

A.D. 1410. Teige, the Son of Melaghlin, who was Son of William, who was Son of Donogh Muimhneach O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maine, a charitable and humane nobleman, died after obtaining the victory of penance.


A.D. 1413. Colla, the Son of Teige O'Kelly, heir apparent to the Lordship of Hy Maine, died.

A.D. 1424. Donogh, Son of Melaghlin O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maíne, was slain by an arrow, while interposing to quell a riot among his own people.

A.D. 1429. Maelseaghlin, the Son of Connor Anabaidh O'Kelly, who was the Son of the Lord of Hy-Maine, was slain with one cast of a Javelin by John Cam O'Teige, one of O'Conor's people.

A.D. 1451. A great war broke out among the Hy-Manians. O'Connor Don went to protect O'Kelly, and gave up his Son and two other hostages to him, as pledges for the perpetual payment of twenty marks, viz fourteen marks for Fearann-na-Sithe, which the Hy-Mainians had purchased from Torlogh Oge previous to that time, and Hugh O'Connor gave this in - and six marks due by MaGeoghegan in this war; and by these means he defended O'Kelly.

A.D. 1464. Breasal, the Son of Donogh O'Kelly, and Melaghlin the Son of William O'Kelly who were engaged in a contest with each other concerning the Lordship of Hy-Maine, both died within


the one week at the end of April. When Melaghlin's servant came to see Breasal in his mortal sickness, Breasal said: "I shall meet Melaghlin in the presence of the Lord of (us) both at the end of a week"; and both did attend that meeting.

A.D. 1467. Hugh, the Son of Brian O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maine died, and was interred at Athlone, and Hugh na-Coille {of the wood} the Son of William O'Kelly, assumed his place.

A.D. 1468. Felim Fionn took great spoils from O'Conor Don, and carried them with him into Moylurg. He also took great spoils from Hy-Maine, from the descendants of Felim Cleirach, and other booty from Muintir Birn {the O'Beirns} to Kill-athrachta whither he went to oppose Richard Burke and his forces. He preserved his army in a collected mass for a week, maintaining them upon his own provisions only, and would have kept them longer if they had chosen to remain with him. He carried off another great booty from Ciarruighe Mac Ceithernigh, and on the same day slew the grandson of Hugh Caoch O'Conor; but Edmond Mac William rose up against him at Iomaire Uarain with


60 Gallowglasses, Sixty Kerns, and the Horse forces of his own territory. Many were wounded between them, and Felim was deprived of the spoils as well as of his Horses.

A.D. 1469. Hugh, the Son of William O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maine, the most eminent man in Ireland for hospitality, and one who had never refused the countenance of Man, was treacherously slain by the descendants of Donogh O'Kelly, viz, by the Sons of Breasal and of Teige, the Son of Donogh, on Shrove Monday, the second day before the festival of St. Berach; and two O'Kellys were then called by his name, viz. William, the Son of Hugh, who was Son of Brian, and Teige Caech, the Son of William O'Kelly.

A.D. 1472. Mac William Burke marched with an Army into Hy-Maine, to assist Teige Caech O'Kelly, but after having subdued the Hy-Mainians from the Suck eastwards, and obtained hostages from them, he at last sustained a great loss, for 26 of his people fled privately from his army, among whom were the Sons of Mac Walter Burke, the Sons of Maurice, the Sons of Mac Jordan, the Son of Mac-an-Mhileadh (Staunton) &c. The Mainians {i.e. the O'Kelly's} captured or slew all these,


excepting only Mac Jordan who effected his escape through the strength of his arm though severely wounded. Mac William returned sorrowfully home.

A.D. 1475. *** It was on the same day that O'Donnell gained the battle of Baile-locha-luatha, where the Son of Mac Awley and many others were slain. O'Donnell remained encamped for some time there, the next day proceeded with his army towards the Shannon. The O'Kellys who accompanied them on this expedition collected all the vessels {i.e. Ships & Boats} they could find in the neighbourhood, and in these O'Donnell and his Army crossed the Shannon into Hy-Maine, where he remained until he had recruited himself after his long expedition. He then proceeded through Clanrickard Conmaicne-Cuile and Clan-Costelloe, and marched back again through Machaire-Chonnacht, from whence he returned to his own Country

A.D. 1484. Donogh O'Kelly, Tanist of Hy Maine, died after a long sickness.


A.D. 1485. Ulick Burke, Lord of Clanrickard, and heir of the Earl of Ulster, a general Patron of the learned of Ireland, died, and his Son, also called Ulick, assumed his place. This Ulick led an Army into Machaire chonnacht, and into Hy-Maine and burned and destroyed Corn and Towns, and among other things burned and demolished the Castle and Prison of Tulsk.

A.D. 1487. William, the Son of Hugh, who was Son of Brian O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maine was treacherously taken prisoner by his own Kinsmen and afterwards died in chains, upon wh. two Lords were set up in his place, viz Melaghlin, the Son of Hugh, who was Son of Brian, and Donogh, the Son of Breasal O'Kelly.

A.D. 1489. War was waged against O'Conor by Roderick, the Son of Felim, by the descendants of Teige Oge and of Teige Roe, and also by the descendants of Roderick Mac Dermott. They made a combined attack on him at Ard-an-choillin where they struck and knocked down Cathal Roe O'Connor, and triumphantly rescued their own Cavalry, but O'Connor himself with his Cavalry and Gallowglasses came up with them


and despoiled them of some booty which they had taken from his Creaghts, he then pursued them to Tulsk where he slew Donogh Cleireach, the Son of Teige Mac Dermott. O'Conor's own Gallowglasses however acted a treacherous part, turned against him, defeated him {and the loyal part of his army} and slew Connor Boy Mac Cormac with many others; they also deprived him of a party of his Creaghts and then departed in exultation! O'Conor and his loyal Troops comported themselves with becoming bravery, and conducted their Creaghts into Hy-Maine.

A.D. 1490. O'Conor committed a predatory outrage in Hy-Maine at Turlach-na m-Bruigheol upon which the Son of Roderick the Son of Torlogh.

A.D. 1499. Hugh O'Connor was expelled from his Country by McDermott and driven westwards across the Shannon by the consent of the Siol-Muireadhaigh. Mac William Burke was prevailed on to come to their assistance by O'Conor and the Sons of William O'Kelly. The Castle of Athleague was taken by him and given up to the Sons of William O'Kelly. He took


Conor O'Kelly, the second Lord of Hy-Maine prisoner in it, and delivered (him) together with the hostages of Hy-Maine up to Melaghlin, the Son of Teige, who was Son of Donogh who thereupon assumed the Lordship of Hy-Maine.

A.D. 1513. Teige, the Son of Melaghlin O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maine died.

A.D. 1536. Donall, the Son of Donogh O'Kelly, a select Captain and Tanist of Hy-Maine from Carraidh to Grian; and Egnechan, the Son of Melaghlin, who was Son of Donogh, his Nephew, were both treacherously slain by Melaghlin, the Son of William, who was Son of Melaghlin O'Kelly in the Woods (Faa's) of Athlone, by order of the Sons of O'Donnell' s own brother, viz. the Sons of Teige, who was Son of Donogh O'Kelly.

A.D. 1562. O'Rourke {Brian Ballach, the Son of Owen, who was Son of Tiernan, who was Son of Teige, who was Son of Tiernan More} the Senior of Siol-Feargna, and of the tribe of Hugh Finn, a man whose vassals, supporters, merchants and other tributaries had extended from the ferry (Callow) in the territory of Hy-Many to the fertile and in-Salmon-abounding Drobhaois on the boundary of the far famed province of Ulster,


and from Granard to Teffia. ({this is wrong JO'D}).

A.D. 1572. See Siol-Anmchadha at this year, P.

A.D. 1580. O'Rourke mustered an Army in the Month of Novr., and overrunning the district between the Rivers Suck and Shannon, burned and plundered the Feadha and a great portion of Hy-Mainy.

He made another incursion into Hy-Many in the Month of December, dreadfully desolated the Country and slew half a band of the soldiers of Sir Nicholas Malby at Lios-da-lon. On this occasion O'Rourke was assisted by a party of the O'Connors.

A.D. 1593. Teige, the Son of William O'Kelly from Caladh in Hy-Many, died. His death was a cause of great lamentation in Hy-Many.


A.D. 1600. When O'Donnell and his Ultonian forces had joined the Connacians at Ballymoat, he marched then thro' Corran, through the middle of Moy-ai-an fhinnbheannaigh, through Clann-Conmhaighe, through Hy-Many, and the level part of Clanrickard without giving battle or sustaining the slightest injury until he pitched his Camp in the West of Clanrickard in the patrimony (Oireacht) of Redmond {Burke} on the evening of Saturday.

A.D. 1601. The Sons of John na Seamar who was Son of Richard Saxonach, happened to be encamped during the first day of the Month of January in O'Meagher's Country' in Hy-Cairin, Spies and Scouts were sent out by the nobles of the Butlers to reconnoitre them, and discover (whether) an advantageous attack could be made upon them. To give this matter due deliberation Sir Walter, the Son of John, who was Son of James Butler, and Mac Pierce {James, the Son of Edmond, who was Son of Pierce} and some of the nobles of the two Countries, Kilkenny and Tipperary {after the report of the Spies} met on a certain night at an appointed place, and the result of their conference was a determination to attack the Connaght Camp at day break next morning.


An unusual accident occurred in the Camp of the Burkes, for, by a most fatal oversight, they neglected to place sentinels on the watch so that their enemies finding them unguarded rushed into the midst of them and left them lying mangled and slaughtered gashed & bloodstained Corpses throughout their tents and Booths. On this occasion was slain O'Shaughnessy, John, the Son of Gilduff who was Son of Dermott, who was Son of William, who had been banished from his patrimony, as indeed had been all these plunderers who were in Confederacy with the Sons of John Burke. John oge, the Son of John Burke was taken prisoner and conveyed to Kilkenny, where he was placed in Confinement. Redmond Burke and William with some of their people escaped from the Massacre, and went into Ely. After remaining a short time there they passed into Ulster leaving the Castles which they had hitherto possessed in East Munster under a very slender guard. On their arrival in the territory of the North, i.e. of O'Neill and O'Donnell, Redmond proceeded to hire


Soldiers to march into Clanrickard, and having at length collected a sufficient number he led them during the first days of Spring across the Erne and passed along the borders of Breifny O'Rourke through the Counties of Sligo and Roscommon and across the River Suck into Clann-Conmhaigh. He made a prisoner of the Lord of the latter territory, viz. McDavid {Fiach, the Son of Hobart Boy, who was Son of William, who was Son of Thomas} and afterwards proceeded to Tuath-an-Chalaidh, in the upper part of Hy-Many, in the County of Galway. When the Earl of Clanrickard {Ulick Burke} had heard of his proceedings he went to the eastern extremity of his Country to await and watch him, but notwithstanding all his vigilence Redmond passed by him into Clanrickard on the 13th of the Month of March without being heard or noticed by him and proceeded onwards to the territory of Kinel- Feichin to the South of the Barony of Leitrim in the County of Galway At the break of day on the following morning, Redmond sent forth marauding parties through every townland of that territory, from Maghglass to Crannog-Meg-Cnaimhin and from Coill-Chreac to


the Mountain, and before the noon of that day he had made himself master of all the property and moveable effects of that territory. Shortly afterwards he went to reside in the woods situated in the upper part of that territory and for four or five days wandered about from place to place plundering his neighbours and fortifying his Camp, until the Earl of Clanrickard accompanied by all the troops he had been able to muster in the territory arrived and pitched his Camp at the Monastery of Kenel-feichin. Thus they {i.e. the Earl and Redmond} remained for four or five days {during which time some persons of low rank were slain on both sides,} until Teige, the Son of Brian na mentha, who was Son of Brian Ballach, who was Son of Owen O'Rourke arrived with a number of bold and well armed troops to assist Redmond. When the Earl perceived that these two parties were united against him, he left his Camp and passed into Clanrickard. The others pursued him as far as Loughreagh; and because the Earl and his people effected their escape from them on this occasion, they traversed, plundered and burned the


Country from Leitrim to Ard-Maoldubhain, and as far as the Gate of Feadán in the west of Kinel-Aodha. When Redmond arrived with his bands on the frontiers of Thomond, he pitched his Camp at the western side of Lough Cutra, where he was joined by a nobleman of the Dalcassians, Teige, {the Son of Torlogh, who was son of Donall, who was Son of Conor} O'Brien, who had adopted this step in compliance with the advice and solicitations of bad and foolish Men, and without consulting or taking Counsel of his father or the Earl of Clanrickard, who was his Kinsman and friend. Here he entered into a confederacy with the Sons of John Bourke, and in the course of three days afterwards requested them to accompany him on an excursion into some part of Thomond. This request was not refused, for he was accompanied by some of the chiefs from the Camp with their Kerns. Among these chiefs were William the Son of John Burke, and the grandson of the Mac William viz Walter, the Son of William, who was Son of David, who was Son of Edmond, who was Son of Ulick. On leaving the Camp they passed along the borders of Kinel-Aodha


and Echtghe end Kinel-Dunghaile and sent forth marauding parties on both sides of the River Fergus. ***

A great number of the Queen's people came from various places to assist the Earl of Clanrickard. Among others eight or nine companies of Soldiers were sent from the President of the two provinces of Munster, the Earl's own Son also, who had been for some time before along with the Lord Chief Justice joined him with a number of foreign youths, and the Deputy of the Governor of the Province of Connaght repaired to his aid with a body of troops from Galway. As soon as the Sons of John Burke had heard of this muster, they marched back east of the Mountain until they reached the fastnesses in the territory of Kinel-Fechin where they remained in their former Tents. They had not been long here when the Sons of the Earl, viz. the Baron of Dun-Cuillin {DunKellin} and Sir Thomas Burke, and as many of his Sons as were capable of bearing arms arrived in the territory in pursuit of them at the head of a very numerous force and pitched a splendid and extensive Camp in the very middle of the territory.


The Earl of Clanrickard himself was not in this Camp, for he had fallen severely (ill) of an acute disease on the week before, so that he was not able to undertake an expedition. When the Deputy of the Governor of Connaght and the Baron of Dun-Cuillin had received intelligence that Teige O'Brien was severely wounded in the Camp of Redmond Burke, they sent him a protection in the Queen's name upon which he went to them and the Baron sent an escort with him to Leitrim, one of the Earl's Castles. But he did not long survive his arrival there, for he died immediately afterwards and was interred successively at Loughreagh and Athenry in the same week. ***

As to the Camps in the territory of Kinel-Feichin, they remained face to face reconnoitering each other daily from the festival of St. Patrick to the end of the Month of April, when the Sons of John Bourke whose stores of fleshmeat and other provisions had now become scarce and were almost exhausted quitted the territory. After their departure they plundered O'Madden {Donall, the Son of John, who was Son of Breasal} and then proceeded across the Suck. In the mean time the Sons of the Earl continued in pursuit of them


and many persons were slain between both parties.

The Sons of John Burke then went to Tirconnell to O'Donnell, and the Sons of the Earl returned to their own Country and houses, and upon their return they found their father on the point of Death. After making his will and bidding farewell to his earthly friends and concluding his worldly covenants, the Earl {Ulick, the Son of Richard, who was Son of Ulick na gceann} died, in the Month of May at Loughreagh, and was interred at Athenry with great honour. His death was one of the lamentable occurrences of the time in Ireland. He was a mighty and justly-judging Lord, of a mild and august countenance as becoming a chief, affable in conversation, gentle towards his friends, fierce to his neighbouring enemies, and impartial in all decisions, and a man who had never been known to act a feeble or imbecile part on the field of danger from the period when he had first taken up arms to the day of his death. His Son Richard was appointed to his place. To commemorate the year of the Earl's death the following quatrain was composed.


[Hand of J. O'Donovan resumed:]


The extent of this celebrated territory has never yet been pointed out by any of our topographical writers. O'Flaherty has pronounced it coextensive with the barony of Kiltartan though there is a passage in his own Ogygia to shew that it must have been much more extensive. Thus part III, c. 57 he places Turlach Airt lying between Moyveela and Kilcornan in the territory of Aidhne, which, if it be correct, shews that Aidhne extended northwards as far as the River of Clarin Bridge. But we have many other evidences to shew that the territory of Aidhne extended northwards as far as Clarin Bridge and the peninsula of Meadhraighe. It is however unnecessary to sum up evidences as it has been already proved that O'Flaherty's country extended southwards


as far as Clarin Bridge and included all the peninsula of Meadhraighe. Let one authority therefore be received as sufficient to prove this point directly. In a very ancient historical (tale) called Tain Bo Regomon, the ford of Ath cliath Meadhraighe, now Clarin Bridge is placed in the district of Crioch noc Beathra in the north of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, and the truth of this is proved by O'Dugan, who makes oga Beathrach a cantred in Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne belonging to the family of Mac Fiachrach.

Dos cumlad Connachta ma Ailill & Medhbh & Fergus & loingeas Uladh do Áth Briúin do cobhair a muintire. Do righenset imorra mic Aililla co léic chatha do sciach & do dhraighen i mbeól ind Átha Fri Recoman co na mhuintir co ná roch tadar dul dars in Áth co tanic Oilill co n-a shluagh conid ne ata Ath Cliath Meadraidi i g-crich noc beathra i tuaiscirt Hua Fiachrach Aidhne.

MS. Trin: Col: H 2..16, p. 646.

Then Connacians around (or with) Oilill and Meave, and Fergus with the Ultonian exiles proceeded to Ath-Briuin to assist their people. The sons of Oilill had (previously) made of white and black thorn trees in the (mouth of) the ford against Regoman and his people so that they were not able to cross the ford until Oilill arrived with his forces. From this circumstance, that ford situated in Crioch oc Beathra in the north of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne received the name of Ath cliath Meadhraidhi.


Shane O'Dugan speaks of Aidhne as follows in his topographical poem.

Druidem le hAidhne na n-each
Le n-uaisle is le n-eineach
Leanom a ríogha nach gann
Beanom re siol na saor chlann.
Luardheam Aidhne as feidhm gan acht
Fágbham Fineadha Chonnacht
Bionraidhem a maithe amach
Iomraidem Flaithe O'-bhFiachrach.
Clann Mic giolla Ceallaigh caidh
Ui Eidhin na n-each seangbhlaith
Dion a n-Uaille ar a n-armaibh
Do siol Ghuaire Ghlanabhraidh
Maith an Féindeadh, 'sas fleadhach
Ui Chlirigh 's s'a ngenelach.
Ar Cenel Chindgamhna gloin
Ui Duibhgiolla is d'á nduchoigh
Meg Fiahcrach as eatnach sluinn
Ar ogaibh Beathrach bárrthruim,
Ar chenel Sétna na slat
Siol Catham croda a gcomrac
Leó tarbha a dtragh 'sa tuile
O'Maghna ar Clár Caonruidhe.
Dá righ Ceneóil Aodha ann (an?)
O'Seachnasaigh na seachnam
As diobh O'Cathail na gcliar
Min a achaidh 'sa úirsliabh.

Let us approach Aidhne of the steeds
Their nobles and hospitality.
Let us trace (follow) its Kings, who are not scarce (few)
Let us touch on the race (seed) of the nobles,
Let us mention Aidhne, (a) duty without condition (exception)
Let us leave the tribes of Connaught
Let us sweetly sing their nobles
Let us mention the chiefs of Hy-Fiachrach(a)
The Mac Gillakellys, the pure
The O'Heyns of beautiful slender steeds
Whose pride is defended by their arms(b)
Of the race of Guaire of fair brows (Glanabhraidh),(c)
Good the hero and festive
O'Clery, who is of their race (tribe).
Over the fair Kenel-Kingawna
Rules O'Duibhghiolla, who is of their country
Mag Fiachrach of famous name
Rules o'er the heavy-haired youths of Beathra (ogaibh Beatrach)(d)
Over Kinel-Setna of rods
Rules O'Cahan, brave their battle (conflict)
They possess the profits of the shore and flood(e)
O'Moyna over the plain (clar) of Kaenry.
Two kings o'er Kinel-Aodha, the noble,
O'Shaughnessy, whom we do not avoid(f)
And O'Cahill of the clergy
Smooth his fields and fertile mountain (úir sliabh)(g)


(a) [Referred to on MS p. 412] This is a most ridiculous repetition of the same idea!

(b) [Referred to on MS p. 412] Díon a n-Uaille ar a n-armaibh. This is the true aristocracy!

(c) [Referred to on MS p. 412] Guaire was King of Connaught in the seventh century, and so hospitable and generous that he almost became the God of hospitality among the Bards. He was indeed as much so as Brighit, the daughter of Dagda was their Muse.

(d) This territory was (is) in the north of Hy-Fiachrach. ClarinBridge is in it.


(e) [Referred to on MS p. 413] Their cantred then was about Dun Guaire. They seem to have had an exclusive right to the fisheries of the territory and to all the valuable things cast ashore.

(f) [Referred to on MS p. 413] O'Seachnasaigh na seachnam. This is a play upon the name Seachnasach which seems to signify one that shuns or avoids, being apparently formed from the verb seachnaim.

(g) [Referred to on MS p. 413] (Mín a Achaidh 'sa Úrsliabh) Kinelea comprises a part of the mountain Echtghe. We do not agree with O'Dugan that the fields and mountain of Kinel Aedha na h-Echtghe are at all smooth; for we never saw a surface so craggy, rocky, stony, rugged, uneven! Perhaps the Bard was joking! Why has he not told us a word about the scenery of Lough Cutra and the Devil's Punch Bowl?


After the Burkes had formed the territory of Clanrickard the O'Clerys were driven out of Hy- Fiachrach Aidhne into Tirawley and Erris in Mayo, from which some of them passed to Tirconnell. See my letter from Westport on the history of the O'Clerys. The O'Shaughnessys and O'Heynes however retained a considerable portion of it but dependant on (Mac William Oughter afterwards) the Earl of Clanrickard to whom they paid chief rent. O'Heyne's country was called Coill O'bFiachrach, i.e. the wood of Hy-Fiachrach and O'Shaughnessy's Kinel-Aedha na h-Echtghe, i.e. the tribe of Aodh of Sliabh Echtghe from its comprising a part of that mountain. Both names are still vividly remembered in the country and the extent of both territories known. The former


comprises the parishes of Killinny, Killeenavarry and Doorus, and the latter, the eastern portion of the barony of Kiltartan.

It appears from an Inquisition taken in the year 1608 that the Barony of Kiltartan, in that document called Kiltaraght, contained three territories called Kinelea, Eraght Redmond, and Killoveyeragh, which are defined as follows.

By virtue of a commission &c, we have enquired by the oaths of honest men &c, who say that the Barony of Kiltaraght, in the County of Galway was esteemed to be 208½ quarters, that is to say, Kynnaley (Cineál Aedha) otherwise O'Shaghnes's county contry, 105 quarters, Eraght-Redmond (Oireacht Redmuind) 58½ quarters and Killovyereagh (Coill O'bhFiachrach), otherwise O'Hein's contry, 45 quarters. The said territory of Kynnaley (Cineál Aodha) belonging to the heirs of Sir Dorby O'Shaghnes, by this survey including the six (syxe) quarters of Killmacowgh, and the four quarters of Killinecappaghfarrell, doth consist of seaven thousand eight hundred and three skore acres of land, being three skore and fyve quarters and a half, each quarter 120 acres.


That Eraght-Redmond (Oireacht Redmuinn) doth consist of 8520 acres which reduced maketh three skore eleven quarters.

That Killovyeragh (Coill O'bhFiacrach) otherwise O'Heyn's (Hein's) contry doth consist of 8640 acres which maketh three score and twelve quarters.

That Kiltaraght was not equally rated at the establishing the late composition, for that the quarters of Kinnáley (Cineál Aedha) are of far lesser measure than most of the quarters of Eraght Redmond whereof they find the (two) quarters of Ballynekilly do consist of 547 acres being never before reputed for any more than two quarters; that the two quarters of Castlebary (Castleboy?) in Mac Redmond's Contry do consist of 275 acres; and of Killoveragh the two quarters of Dowrysse do consist of three hundred acres. That in Kinnaley (Aedha) the two quarters of Ballyneburreysagh do consist of no more than 149½ acres and the two


quarters of Ballinduffe 126 acres. The quarter of land of the crosse 31 acres. That there are also some small quarters of Eraght-Redmond viz the seven quarters of Ballyely 384 acres, and the quarter and half of Castletown 128 acres.

From the foregoing evidences it appears very clearly that the country of the Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne was exactly co-extensive with the diocese of Kilmacduagh, a fact which we (can also) learn from the life of St. Colman Mac Duach, which states that that Saint become the patron of all the Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne.

The following annals of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne extracted from the Four Masters will give us some idea of the contending families of this territory


[Hand of ?E. O'Curry:]


An. Mundi. 3727. Eochaidh Faobharglas, monarch of Ireland died, after a reign of twenty years. In his reign Magh nAidhne was cleared of timber (woods).

3872. In the fifth year of his reign over Ireland, the monarch Muineamhon died of a plague in Magh Aidhne.

[Hand of J. O'Donovan resumed:]

The identity of Aidhne with the Diocese of Kilmacduagh appears at once from the following passage in a MS. Trin. Col. H. 2. 16, page 795.

Conidh isin maighin sin ro Fothaigheadh Cell Mic Duach conadh leis Aidhne uile & clann Ghuaire Mic Colmain ossin amach co brath.

And in that place was founded Kill-mic Duagh, so that he {Mac Duagh} possesses all Aidhne and the descendants of Guaire, the son of Colman for ever.


[Hand of ?E. O'Curry:]

Hodie barony of Kiltartan and part of Dunkellin

An. Dom. 531. The fourth year of the reign of Tuathal, the battle of Claonloch, in Kenel Aodh, was fought by Goibneann, Chief of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, where Maine, the son of Cearbhall, was killed in protecting the hostages of Connaught.

A.D. 763. Concobar, the son of Cumasgach, Lord of Aidhne, died. A.D. 767. Art, the son of Flaithina, Chief of Aidhne, died.

A.D. 779. See Cam Conaill at this year.

A.D. 805. Anluan, the son of Conor, Lord of Aidhne, died.

A.D. 822. Tighernach, the son of Cathmogha, Lord of Aidhne, died.


A.D. 887. Maolfabhaill, the son of Cleirech, Lord of Aidhne, died.

A.D. 916. Tigernach, the grandson of Clerech, Lord of Aidhne died.

A.D. 920. Maol-mac-Duach, Lord of Aidhne, was killed by the Danes.

A.D. 937. Donnell, the son of Lorcan, Lord of Aidhne, died at Clonmacnois.

A.D. 938. Harrold, the grandson of lmor, i.e. the son of Sitriuc, Lord of the Danes of Limerick, was killed in Connaught, by the people of Caenrighe Aidhne.

A.D. 950. Guaire of Aidhne, clergyman (clerech nereann) of Ireland, died.

A.D. 964. See Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne at this year.

A.D. 976. Comhallan, the grandson of Cerech, lord of Hy Fiachrach Aidhne died.


A.D. 1013. Maolruanaigh na paidre, {of the prayers} O'Heidhin, Lord of Aidhne, was killed at the battle of Clontarf.

A.D. 1153. Giolla Chealla O'Heidhin, Lord of Aidhne, and his son Hugh, were killed at Fordruim, in an attack made by the men of the north of Ireland on the Connacians.



An. Dom. 531. The fourth year of the reign of Tuathal, the battle of Claonloch in Kenel Aodh, was fought by Goibneann, Chief of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, where Maine, the son of Cearbhall, was killed, while protecting the hostages of Connaught.

A.D. 649. Fergus, the son of Donnell, and Fergus, the son of Ragallach, and Hugh, the son of Betra, the son of Cuimmine, were killed by the Hy-Fiachrians of Aidhne.

A.D. 871. Uathmoran, the son of Brocan, Lord of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, died.

A.D. 964. Cormac, the grandson of Cillene, Coarb of Kieran, of the tribe of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne.


A.D. 964. Comhaltan, the grandson of Clerach, i.e. the Lord of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, and Melaghlin, the son of Aredai, defeated Fergal O'Ruarc, on which occasion, seven hundred were killed, together with Forchleach O'Gadhra, Lord of South Leyney.

A.D. 976. Comhaltan O'Clery, Lord of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, died.

A.D. 1003. A battle was fought between Teige O'Kelly, with the Hy-Manians, and Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, assisted by the people of West Connaught, on which occasion Comaltan O'Clery, Lord of Hy Fiachrach, Conor, the son of Ubban, and Cendfaela the son of Roderick, with many others were slain.

A.D. 1025. O'Comaltain (the grandson of Comaltan O'Clery, vide supra) *** Lord of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, died.


A.D. 1033. A battle was fought between Elie and Hy-Fiachrach Aidne, in which Braen O'Clery and Muiredhach, the son of Gilla Patrick, with many others were killed.

A.D. 1047. O'Heidhin, Lord of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, died.

A.D. 1048. Maolfabhail O'Heidhhin, Lord of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, died.

A.D. 1055. Donnell Roe O'Brien was killed by O'Heidhin, Lord of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne.

A.D. 1121. Torlogh O'Conor, with the Connacians, made a plundering excursion into Desmond, as far as (the Termon of) Lismore, and Carried off Cows without number. On this occasion Muiredhach O'Flaherty, Lord of West Connaught, Hugh O'Heidhin, Lord of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, and Maurice O'Lorcain, with several others were slain.


A.D. 1147. Giolla Mochoindi O'Cathail, Lord of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, was killed by the son of the son of Donnell O'Conor.

A.D. 1207. Meyler oge, Mortogh O'Brien, and Torlogh, the son of Roderick O'Conor, made an incursion into Tir Fiachrach-Aidhne and plundered fifteen Ballys {Townlands}.

A.D. 1225. See Ardrathain at this year.

A.D. 1247. Conor O'Murry, Bishop of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne (i.e. of Kilmacduagh recté), died in Bristol.

A.D. 1599. See Clanrickard at this year.



An. Dom. 645. The battle of Carn Conaill was gained by Dermot, the son of Hugh Slaney, over Guaire, in which place (du) were killed, the two Cuans, viz, Cuan, the son of Enda, King of Munster, and Cuan, the son of Conell, chief of Hy-Figente, and Tolamnach, the Chief of Hy-Liathain, and where Guaire was betrayed on the place {field} of the battle.

On Dermot's first setting out to fight this battle, he passed through Clonmacnois, after which the congregation of Kieran offered prayers to God for him, that he may return safely, on account of his own justice (coraigheacht) {or generosity}.

On the King's return after, he offered Tuaim nEirc with all its territorial appurtenances i.e. Liath Manchain, as asod over Altar (fod foron altoir) {altar land} to God and Kieran, and he gave three maledictions to the King of Meath if any of his people should, even, take but a drink


of water there. So that on that account it was that Dermot ordered his own Sepulture at Clonmacnois.

A.D. 779. The battle of Carn Conaill in Aidhne was fought by Tiopraite, the son of Teige, King of Connaught, {where} the Hy-Fiachrians were defeated.

[Hand of J. O'Donovan resumed:]

I find no name in Aidhne to indicate the existence of this carn but Gort-a-charnain in the parish of Kilbeacanty. Perhaps Ballyconnell in the same parish has something to do with it. q? might it have been originally Baile {Chairn} Chonaill?


According to the Dinnseanchus the plain of Aidhne received its name from Aidne, the son of Allguba and brother of Moen and Aoi from whom the plains of Moen moy and Moy-Aoi were called, and who was the first that cleared this plain of wood. See Lib. Lec folio 240 et sequent:



This territory, the patrimony of Mac William Oughter, afterwards created Earl of Clanrickard, comprised all Moenmoy and all (Hy-Fiachrach Aidne and) O'Flaherty's more ancient country, comprising the Baronies of Loughrea, Dunkellin, Kiltartan, Clare, Athenry and Leitrim.

I here insert the annals of Clanrickard as given by the Four Masters and an Inquisition taken at Galway on the 20th of March 1608 which throws great light upon the history


of this territory at that period. To write a perfect history of this family many other documents must however be consulted, such as the more ancient Irish annals which are better authorities than the Four Masters, the annals of Kilronan and Ulster, Cambrensis Hibernia Expugnata, Duald Mac Firbis's Genealogy of the two Mac Williams, &c, &c. Much has been already done by Lodge and Hardiman, but there are many original authorities especially Irish ones which neither of them ever (saw). But to compare all these documents must be a work not of six days - the period which I have consumed in writing these notices - but of six months.


[Hand of a scrivener


A.D. 1263. O'Donnell {Donall oge} marched with an army into Connaght where he was joined by Hugh O'Connor at the Curlieu Mountains. They combined their forces and marched from thence to Croghan and onwards across the River Suck until they arrived at Clanrickard. They destroyed and totally devastated the Country as far as Echtge and Galway.

A.D. 1366. A great war broke out between the English of Connaght viz, between Mac William {Burke} and Mac Maurice {Fitzgerald}. The Clann Maurice were banished from his the [sic] Country of the latter by Mac William and Mac Maurice fled for protection to the Clann-Rickard.

Mac William, Hugh O'Connor King of Connaght and Wm. O'Kelly, Lord of Hy-Maine, marched with an army to upper Connaght against the Clann-Rickard where they remained nearly three months engaged in mutual hostilities until at last Mac William subdued the Clann-Rickard, in consequence of which their hostages were delivered up to him.


A.D. 1375. Brian O'Brien, Lord of Thomond, was banished by Torlogh, the Son of Mortogh O'Brien, and by the Clann-Rickard.

A.D. 1377. Richard Burke marched with an army into Clann-Cuilein. The O'Coleans assembled headed by {the Son of O'Daly's (Daughter}) Macnamara, and gave battle to the Clanrickard whom they defeated. In the conflict, Theobald, the Son of Ulick, the Captain of the Kerns, the three Sons of O'Heyne and many others of the leading Men of Clann-Rickard were slain.

A.D. 1381. Dungalach O'Madden was slain in a skirmish by the Clann-Rickard.

A.D. 1386. The Connacians concluded a peace with each other after the termination of the war and Mac William Burke went into the House {i.e. submitted to} Mac William of Clann-Rickard, and gave him the Lordship. Mac Feorais {Birmingham} likewise submitted.

A.D. 1401. Thomas, the Son of Sir William Albanach Burke Mac William, Lord of the English of Connaght, died after penance. On the death of this Thomas two Mac Williams were elected, viz,


Ulick, the Son of Richard oge, who was elected the Mac William, and Walter, the Son of Thomas who was elected another Mac William, the latter giving pledges of submission to Mac William of Clanrickard for his seniority.

A.D. 1403. O'Connor Don and Mortogh Bacach, the Son of Donnell {Lord of Sligo} marched into Upper Connaght with an army by which they acquired great dominion over Siol-Anmchadha. They then proceeded to Clann-Ríckard to assist Ulick, the Son of Richard {Burke} against the Hy-Manians so that they obtained power over both.

A.D. 1404. Cormac Mac Dermott was slain upon an incursion into Clanrickard in a conflict with the Cavalry of Clann-Rickard & Thomond.

A.D. 1407. The Battle of Killaghy was gained by O'Connor Roe, the Son of Melaghlin O'Kelly, and Mac Dermott over Mac William {Burke) of Clanrickard and Cathal, the Son of Roderic O'Connor {who after the death of O'Connor Don was called King of Connaght} Cathal O'Connor, William Burke, Redmond Mac Hobert and O'Heyne were taken prisoners after the loss of


many on both sides. Among the slain were Randal, the Son of Donall oge Mac Donnell, and John Ballach, the Son of Mac Henry. A great number of Horses and accoutrements were left behind after the defeat, Brian, the Son of Donall, who was son of Mortagh O'Connor, and the Mac Donoghs were those who had inaugurated this Cathal King on Carnfraoich on a former occasion when they came to Machaire Chonnacht and when they also destroyed the Castle of Tobar Tuillsce.

A.D. 1430. An Army was led by Mac William of Clann Ríckard, Mac Donogh of Tir Oililla, and Brian, the Son of Donnell, who was Son of Mortogh O'Connor into Conmaicne Cuile where they burned many places and killed Hugh, the Son of O'Connor Roe, and Carbry, the Son of Brian O'Birn, after which they returned home triumphantly.

A.D. 1438. Connor Mac Egan, Chief Jurisconsult {or Brehon} of Clann-Rickard, died.

A.D. 1439. Edmond Burke, the Son of Mac William of Clann-Rickard, and heir apparent to the Lordship of Clann-Rickard, died of the Plague.


A.D. 1441. O'Madden's Castle i.e., the Castle of Port-an-Tulchain on the Shannon was taken by Mac William Uachtrach and by the Clann-Rickard from O'Madden, and the Son of O'Madden and fourteen hostages who were in the Castle were taken together with great booty in weapons and accoutrements.

A.D. 1446. The Mac Donoghs, Torlogh Carrach O'Conor & O'Conor Don repaired to Mac William of Clann Rickard in order to elect one Mac Donogh; they returned, however after having finally agreed upon the election of two Mac Donoghs, viz John, the Son of Connor Mac Donogh, and Teige, the Son of Tomaltach more Mac Donogh.

A.D. 1451. The Castle of Coradh-finne ({now Corofin in the parish of Cummer Bar: of Clare}) was erected by Mac William of Clanrickard.

A.D. 1452. Mor, the Daughter of O'Connor Faly, and wife of Mac William of Clann-Rickard died of a fall.

A.D. 1462. Mac William of Clann-Rickard made an incursion into Ui Cairin, where O'Meagher {Teige} and his adherents rose up to oppose him. The Son of O'Meagher slew William Burke, the Son of Mac William by one Cast of a Javelin, and it


was this Cast that saved O'Meagher and his Army.

A.D. 1466. Richard, the Son of (Mac) William Burke {Richard oge} Tanist of Clanrickard, died.

A.D. 1467. O'Kelly and the Sons of William Burke were defeated at Cros-Moighe-Croin by Mac William of Clann-Rickard and by the O'Briens, and William Caech Burke, the Son of Mac William, two Sons of O'Kelly, Hugh Boy, the Son of Torlogh McDonnell, Constable of their Gallowglasses, and ten of the nobles of Clann-Donnell {i.e. the McDonnells} who were along with him, were (slain) in the conflict. One hundred and sixty Gallowglasses and numbers of others were also slain.

A.D. 1469. See Baile an chlair at this yeas, p 174.

A.D. 1475. See Hy-Maine at this year, P. 160.

A.D. 1481. Slaine, the Daughter of O'Brien, and wife of Mac William of Clann-Rickard, a vessel filled with charity and hospitality, and the most illustrious woman of her time, died, after having subdued the world and the Devil.

A.D. 1485. Ulick Burke, Lord of Clanrickard and heir of the Earl of Ulster, a general patron of the learned of Ireland died, and his Son also called Ulick assumed his place.


This Ulick led an Army into Machaire Chonnacht, and into Hy-Maine and burned and destroyed Corn and Towns, and among other things burned and demolished the Castle and prison of Tulsk.

A.D. 1486. O'Donnell marched with a great Army into Connaght and Mac William of Clann-Rickard marched with an Army to oppose him; on meeting together however, they agreed to conditions of peace and amity. Felim Fionn O'Connor repaired to their armies and gave himself up to O'Donnell as the representative of his people and chieftain upon which a peace was concluded in Siol-Muireadhaigh but O'Donnell by the advice of Mac William of Clannrickard took Felim Fionn and carried him into Tirconnell.

A.D. 1492. The Son of the Earl of Ormond returned to Ireland, after having been a long time in England. Soon after his arrival he mustered an Army and being joined by O'Brien and his Kinsmen and also by Mac William of Clann-Rickard he marched into the Country of the Butlers where he compelled the Butlers to give him pledges of their submission.


A.D. 1495. Mac William of Clanrickard {Richard oge} went to Lower Connaght and there destroyed whatever O'Donnell had spared.

A.D. 1498. Slaine, the Daughter of Macnamara {Sioda Cam} and wife of Mac William of Clanrickard {Ulick, the Son of Ulick} died.

A.D. 1501. Edmond, the Son of Richard Burke was taken by Mac William of Clanrickard on his return from the Pilgrimage of Saint James {in Spain}. Great considerations were obtained for his ransom and distinguished hostages of his people, besides his Son, were given up in his stead.

A.D. 1503. Mac William of Clannrickard gained a great victory over O'Kelly and a party of the inhabitants of Conmaicne Cuile, where the greater part of the Gallowglasses of both, viz of the Mac Donnells and Sweeneys were slain around their Constable. Walter, the Son of John Burke was also slain. He was a select Captain.

A.D. 1504. The Battle of Bel-atha-na-ngarbhan was gained by John Burke, the Son of Ulick, who was Son of Ulick, who was son of Richard, Tanist of Clann-Rickard over O'Kelly where fell Walter, the Son of John, who was Son of Thos. Burke,


heir to the Lordship of Conmaicne, and where many others of the Clan Donnell and Clan Doyle (Dowell) were slain.

A.D. 1507. John Burke, the Son of Ulick, who was Son of Ulick, who was Son of Richard oge, Tanist of Clannrickard, the noblest of the Sons of the English of Ireland, a vessel of hospitality and truth, and a fiery warrior in battle, died.

A.D. 1509. Mac William of Clannrickard {Ulick, the Son of Ulick, who was Son of Richard Oge} a man kind towards friends and fierce towards Enemies, died.

A.D. 1510. Torlogh, the Son of Teige O'Brien, Lord of Thomond, assembled all his forces, and Macnamara the Siol-Aodha, and Clanrickard mustered numerous troops to oppose them. The Earl led his Army through Bealach-na-fadbaighe and Bealach-na-nGamhna until he arrived at Port-croisi a wooden Bridge which O'Brien had constructed over the Shannon, which Bridge he broke down, and during the night he remained encamped in that (country) and O'Brien pitched his own Camp so near him that they used to hear each others voices during the night. On the morrow the Lord Chief Justice marshalled his Army, placing the English and Irish of Munster in the


van and the English of Meath and Dublin in the rear, and O'Donnell and his small body of troops having joined the English of Meath and Dublin in the rear, they all marched through Moin-na-mBrathar which was the shortest route from Port-Croisi to Limerick. O'Brien's Army charged the English, and slew the Baron of Kent & Barnwall Kircustum, and many other nobles whose names are not mentioned.

A.D. 1519. Mac William of Clannrickard {Richard oge} died.

A.D. 1520. Mac William of Clann-Rickard {Ulick, the Son of Ulick} died.

A.D. 1536. Mac William of Clannrickard {John, the Son of Richard, who was son of Edmond} died, whereupon a great War broke out in Clannrickard concerning the Lordship, and two Mac Williams were elected in the Country, viz. Richard baccach the Son of Ulick, who was styled the Mac William, and Ulick, the Son of Richard oge, who was also called Mac William. On this occasion Ulick na-gceann assisted Richard Bacach.

A.D. 1542. Mac William of Clann-Rickard {viz Ulick na g-ceann} and O'Brien {Morogh} went to England where both were


created Earls and they returned home safe, but Mac William on his arrival at home took the fever, from which he did not recover.

A.D. 1544. The Earl of Clann-Rickard {Ulick na gceann} the most distinguished of the English of Connaght, died. This event was news of much moment in his Country. Great dissentions arose in Clann-Rickard concerning the Lordship; but at last Ulick, the Son of Richard oge, was styled Mac William, although many in his own & the neighbouring territories were opposed to him in favour of Thomas the Son of the deceased.

A.D. 1545. The Son of Mac William of Clann-Rickard {Thomas the heroic, the Son of Ulick na-g-ceann, who was Son of Richard, who was Son of Ulick of Cnoc-Tuagh} made an incursion into Siol-Anmchadha. As soon as the inhabitants perceived him they pursued him as far as Bealach-Tire-Ithain where he and twenty of the most distinguished of his people were slain by the people of Melaghlin Balbh.


A.D. 1556. Giolla Columb O'Clabaigh Coarb of St. Patrick at Uaran in Magh-Aoi, the most distinguished for hospitality and affluence of the Coarbs of Connaght & general support of the indigent and mighty, died in Clann-Rickard, after having been expelled from Uaran, and after his Son Dermott Roe O'Clabaigh had been slain by Clann-Conmhaighe.

A.D. 1560. The Earl of Thomond marched into Iar-Connaght against Morogh of the battle-axes, who was Son of Teige, who was Son of Morogh, who was Son of Rory O'Flaherty; he passed through the Country of the joices, by Fuathaidh ({Fuagh in Connemara}) and by the foot of Bonnán. The inhabitants of the Town of Galway came to defend the ford of Tir-Oilein ({now Terryland at Galway}) against him, but he crossed it by permission of some and in despite of others, and marched through the very middle of Clannrickard, both when going and returning.

A.D. 1567. John Bourke, the Son of John, who was Son of John na bfiacail {of the teeth} who was Son of Ulick Roe, was slain by some peasants and drunken labourers of the Earl of Clann-Rickard.


A.D. 1568. The Countess of Clann-Rickard, viz Margarett, the Daughter of Donogh, who was Son of Conor, who was Son of Torlogh, the most famous woman in Ireland, and the supporter of her friends and relations, died.

A.D. 1570. The same president {(i.e.) of Connaght} and the Earl of Clann-Rickard, {Richard, the Son of Ulick na gceann, who was Son of Richard, who was Son of (Ulick of) Cnoc Tuagh,} laid siege to Sruthair in the summer of this year.

In the president's Army on this occasion were the most distinguished chiefs, heroes and champions of upper Connaght, from Magh-Aoi to Echtge, and from Galway to Athlone. In his Camp there were great numbers of Captains with their Soldiers (archers), and two or three battalions of Irish Giomanachs, as also Cabhach, the Son of Torlogh, who was Son of John Carragh, who was the Son of Mac Donnell, his two Sons and their forces; a party of the descendants of Donall, who was Son of John, who was Son of Owen na Iashaighe McSweeny, viz: Hugh, the Son of Owen, who was Son of Donnell Oge and Donell, the Son of Morogh, who was Son of


Rory More attended by choice battalions of Gallowglasses, and likewise a battalion of Gallowglasses of the Clann-Dowell; He had Ordnance and forces which had been brought from Galway, and he had also a body of vigorous Cavalry to the number of three hundred accoutred in armour and Coats of mail.

As soon as Mac William Burke {John, the Son of Oliverus, who was Son of John} had heard that the president and the Earl had assembled this great Army around Sruthair ({now Sruille}) his heart became sorrowful and his mind confused. He immediately however, summoned to his assistance the lower Bourkes and the descendants of Meyler Burke, as also the Clan-Donnell Galloglach, and Morogh of the battle-axes, who was Son of Rory O'Flaherty. These crowded to his standard attended by as many as they had been able to procure (of hired Soldiers and youths), both Scots and Irish and never halted until they had arrived on a hill which was convenient to the president's and the Earl's Camp. Here they held a consultation to consider in what manner (way) they could


best disperse or scatter those choice and unconquerable forces, who had invaded their territory. At length having by common consent (converted) their Horsemen into infantry, they marched onward in order and regular array, and promised one another that they would not disperse or depart from that order, whether they should defeat the Enemy or be defeated by them. They all likewise resolved that if the son or relation of one of them should be slain before them they would not stop for him but pass him by at once as though he were a stranger. In which state they advanced towards the other Army.

As to the president and the Earl, they placed their Ordnance, their archers, their halberdiers and their mail-clad {horsemen on foot} in the narrow defiles through which they supposed the enemy would pass, placing by their side the Clan Sweeny, the Clan Donnell, the Clan Dowell and all the other infantry of their Army, while they themselves and the powerful body of Cavalry they had with them stood nigh ready to support the fight when occasion


should require. It was wrestling with peril and facing destruction for the youths of the west and lower Connaght to attempt to pass this dangerous road; nevertheless they marched onwards, but had not advanced far before their sides were pierced and their bodies wounded by the first volley of large shot dischar[g]ed at them from Guns and (of) Arrows and (from) elastic bows. It was not however fear or terror or dastardliness that these wounds produced in them, but rather a magnanimous determination of advancing directly to the contest in which they soon tried the temper of their samhthach, the hardness of their swords and the heaviness of their battle-axes on the heads of their enemies. Their enemies did not long withstand these vigorous onslaughts, for a numerous body of them took to wild and precipitate flight, upon which they {the others} advanced and took their places and stations.

They then proceeded to kill those who stood before them, and with vigour and swiftness to pursue those who fled for the distance of two Miles from the Camp, during which pursuit, they slew and disabled great numbers.


A.D. 1572. See Siol Anmchadha at this year, P. 115.

A.D. 1574. The Sons of the Earl of Clannrickard violated their pledged word and fraternal friendship; and John Burke took many Scotch and Irish hirelings into his service. The Earl of Ormond afterwards obtained protection for him, upon which he delivered up hostages to the Queen to be placed in the Custody of the Earl.

A.D. 1576. The Lord Chief Justice Sir Henry Sidney, a Knight in title, and for his deeds and valor in nobleness, also proceeded about the festival of St. Bridget from Cork to Limerick, and the chiefs of Munster as well English as Irish, and also the Dalcassians went along with him in his train. On this occasion he established peace in the two provinces of Munster, and abolished the taxes thitherto paid to Kerns, Bonnaghts and every other description of hired Soldiers. He afterwards took his leave of the Momonians, and proceeded, accompanied by the O'Briens to Galway. Here the inhabitants of upper Connaght came to meet him, viz: the Earl of Clann-Rickard, with his two Sons Ulick and John; Mac William Iochtair {John, the Son of Oliverus, who


was Son of John}; Morogh of the battle-axes, Son of Teige, who was Son of Morogh, who was Son of Rory O'Flaherty, and the O'Kellys with their followers. The result of this Meeting at Galway was that the Dalcassians were detained as hostages for the maintenance of their agreements and that they might make due restitution to those who had complained of them. From the number, however, was excepted Donall O'Brien, whom the Lord Justice selected, took into his service and placed over the County of Clare for the purpose of keeping it in subjection.

Donnell executed this charge, he hanged rebels & other tumultuous and refractory persons. While Donall continued in office, it was not found necessary to place watches over cattle or even to close Doors {so great was the tranquility established by him}.

The Lord chief Justice, having established peace throughout every part of Ireland, through which he (had) passed, proceeded to Dublin bringing the Sons of the Earl of Clann-Rickard with him as pledges for the reparation of injuries which they had previously committed


upon the Queen's subjects in revenge of the death of their father. When the Lord Chief Justice however arrived in Dublin with these hostages, his heart was suddenly softened into kindness, so that he suffered them {to relieve their dejected minds} to go and visit their friends in the neighbouring territories, but upon condition that they would not pass into their own native territories until he should give them liberty to do so at some future time. They promised to observe this condition, but as soon as they had reached the boundary of their territory, they violated their promise, for they passed into their native principality, and some say that they did so by the connivance of their father. For this, however, he was soon sorry, for in five nights afterwards, the Lord chief Justice came in pursuit of his Sons as far as Athlone, and their father the Earl of Clann-Rickard was forced to give up to him the Town of Loughrea, and all his patrimonial inheritance, his fertile Lands Mountains and Castles & he himself was taken and proclaimed the Queen's prisoner. He was then conveyed to Dublin and confined in a


close prison, where he heard not the voice of a friend or associate. The Lord Chief Justice then left a number of Captains in Clann-Rickard, and by the contests between the two Sons of the Earl the Country was ravaged and destroyed, and the whole territory converted into one scene of pillage and tumult. Countless were the numbers of English and Irish who were slain, and of Cattle, Clothes and accoutrements that were destroyed during their Contests in the autumn and winter of this year. The wilds and wildernesses, the rugged and roughheaded mountains, the woody and impassable hills of their native principality were the only remnants of it possessed by the Sons of the Earl at this time, while the English were Lords of the principal towns and of its greensided & delightful hills. Edmond the Son of William Burke, went forth from Caislen-an-Bharraigh ({Castlebar}) to assist the Sons of the Earl's and the consequence to him was that the Lord Justice took Caislen-an-Bharraigh and banished himself with his wife and Children into Clanrickard.


A.D. 1577. John, the Son of James, who was Son of John, who was Son of the Earl, was taken prisoner at Cork by the president, William Drury and sent off to be imprisoned in Dublin where Richard Burke, the Earl of Clanrickard was also a prisoner. The Sons of the Earl of Clanrickard were at peace with the English but at strife with Thomond.

A.D. 1578. Sioda, the Son of Mac-Con, who was Son of Sioda, who was Son of Mac-Con, Tanist of the eastern part of Clan-Coilen, was slain on the Mountain (Sliabh) Echtghe while in pursuit of a party of the Kerns of Clannrickard who were carrying off plunder.

A.D. 1580. See Cill Mac Duagh at this year P 85.

A.D. 1581. The Sons of the Earl of Clannrickard were reconciled to the English in the summer of this year, after the demolition of their Towns and execution of their Kindred. They agreed to this peace on condition that there shd. be no taxes, fines, bondage or other oppression imposed on their Country or upon their allies in War while they remained peaceable, they paying only the Queen's rent twice in the year.


A.D. 1582. See Leitrim Bar: at this year, P. 98.

A.D. 1583. The people of Nicholas Malby and the Sons of the Earl of Clanrickard, Ulick and John, marched with a great army into Iochtar-Tire and Umhaill O'Mailly, possessed themselves of a countless number of Cattle spoils on that occasion, and also burned and totally destroyed Cathair na mart {Westport}.

A.D. 1586. Hugh, the Son of Owen, who was Son of Donall, who was Son of Owen, who was Son of Donnell na madmann {Mac Sweeny} high Constable of Clanrickard, died. He was a Soldier in magnanimity and a hero in valor.

A.D. 1598. When O'Donnell had obtained possession of Ballymoat in mid-autumn the Connallians (Kinel-Connell) sent their creights into the County of Sligo, and O'Donnell himself dwelt at Ballymoat from the time it was given up to him until after Christmas when he ordered his forces to be mustered from (in) every quarter where they were; first the Kinel Connell with all their forces came to him, and next Mac William Burke {Theobald, the Son of Walter Kittagh} and all those who were under his jurisdiction (command). When they had come


to O'Donnell in the end of the Month of December to Ballymoat he resolved upon going to Clanrickard. This he did, and although the inhabitants of that territory were greatly in dread of him and almost continually on the watch he marched silently and quietly with his forces and arrived unobserved at the Gates of Kilcolgan by break of day. He then sent marauding parties in every direction around him, through the level part of Clanrickard. One party went to the patrimony of (Eraght) Redmond, and another to Dun-Guaire in Coill-Ua-b-Fiachrach, who slew Torlogh Boy and Ross, the two Sons of Ross, the Son of Anthony, who was Son of Melaghlin O'Loughlin, whose death was generally lamented. But Torlogh Boy, the Son of Ross, before he had fallen slew Hugh Boy oge, the Son of Hugh Boy, who was Son of Maelmurry Mac Donnell, a Gentleman who was along with Mac William. Others of O'Donnell's people slew the two Sons of William, the Son of John from Rinn-Mill, and the Son of Theobald, who was Son of Dabuck from Derrydonnell with his fraternal nephew. O'Donnell's


brother Magnus, captured Mac Hobart from Disert-Ceallaigh (now Isertkelly) {viz, William, the Son of Ulick Roe, who was son of Ulick Oge}. Although the Earl had great numbers of hired Soldiers stationed in Clanrickard, O'Donnell was permitted to Carry off out of the Country the immense spoils, large herds & other valuable things which his Army had collected without receiving battle or opposition; he returned safe to Ballymoat.

A.D. 1599. O'Donnell {Hugh Roe, the Son of Hugh, who was Son of Magnus} dwelt at Ballymoat in the County of Sligo from the time of the Battle of Athbuidhe in the beginning of August to the festival of Saint Bridget in this year. He thought it too long that he had remained during all this time without making any incursions into the neighbouring territories; but he knew not what particular place now to attack, for he had not left a district, fastness or wilderness in the whole province of Connaght which he had not either plundered or caused the inhabitants to give him pledges and hostages, excepting only Thomond. Wherefore at the time aforesaid he ordered an army to be mustered for the purpose of marching into Thomond. ***

As to O'Donnell and his forces they marched forward and delayed not until they arrived unnoticed at the other side of the River in Clanrickard, and in the evening


pitched an extensive Camp at Ruaidh-Bheitheach between Kilcolgan and Ardrahin. Here they remained for some time to consult with each other upon the best means of getting through this {to them} unknown Country, and also to take refreshments, and that the army excepting those who were on the watch might take a sleep after their long and wearisome Journey. Thus they remained until midnight when O'Donnell ordered them to rise up immediately and remove from that neighbourhood before day light. They (did) so without delay and proceeded onwards straightways until by break of day they arrived in the eastern extremity of Coill O bhFlannchadha in the territory of Kenel-Fermaic in Thomond. ***

When O'Donnell perceived the surrounding hills covered and darkened with the herds and heavy cattle of the territories through which his troops had passed, he proceeded on his way homewards across the chain of rough headed (rugged topped) mountains of Burren, and passing by Nua-chongbhail, Turlagh, the Monastery of Corcomroe, and Carcair-na-gCleireach, arrived at Rubha (now Roo) in the west (East) of Hy-Fiachrach-Aidhne, where he stopped for the night. On the Morrow


he passed through the upper part of Clanrickard and by the Gate of Athenry but nothing more is related concerning his adventures until he arrived at Ballymoat.

A.D. 1600. *** When O'Donnell and his Ultonian forces had joined the Connacians at Ballymoat, he marched them through Corran, through the middle of Moy-ai-an fhinnbheannaigh, through Clann Conmhaigh, through Hy-Many, and the level part of Clanrickard, without giving battle or skermish and without giving or sustaining the slightest injury, until he pitched his Camp in the west of Clanrickard in the patrimony of Redmond {Burke} (Eraght Redmond) on the evening of Saturday. On the Tuesday following being the festival of St. John messengers {from his enemies} arrived in Thomond, to tell O'Brien of his approach, thinking that he would not move from that spot until the morning of Monday But in this they were mistaken, for they set out early on Sunday morning and marched forward through the territory of Redmond (Eiraght Redmond), through Cenel-Aodha, through Cinel Donghaile and upper Clann-Cuilein and before mid-day had passed westwards across the


river Fergus after having plundered the greater portion of the territories through which they had passed. ***

O'Donnell and his forces proceeded on their march through the narrow and difficult passes of the rocky white hills of Burren without receiving battle or skermish, without being pursued or attacked until they arrived at the mansions on the smooth plains of Medrigia, and remained that night on the hill of Cnoc-an-ghearrain between Kilcolgan & Galway, where on the following day the spoils and booty were divided among them, and each party directed their way homewards through (along) the roads of Connaght, driving their respective portions of the spoils *** O'Donnell permitted Mac William and those who had come from Iar-Connaught to return home, and he set out himself in a directly eastern direction along the common roads of the Country.

A.D. 1601. See Hy-Mainy at this year, P. 170.



A.M. 2242. Cesoir died in Cull Cesra in Connaght, and was buried in Carn-Cesra.

[Note by J. O'Donovan]

Knockmea, a hill in the Barony of Clare and Co. of Galway is thought to be this Carn-Keasrach, and near it Cuil-Ceasrach Ogygia P. III, C. I {very curious}.

Giraldus Cambrensis says that this place used to be pointed out in his own time {1202}. There is a very remarkable Carn on the hill of Knock Meadha lying about 5¼ miles to the South-west of Tuam, but it is curious that Fin bheara not Ceasair is now the fairy of this hill.

John O'Donovan,
Tuam, Aug 30th 1838.

Compare with my account of Carn mor on Sliabh Beatha where Ceasair's husband Bith is said to have been interred; but of which Dalach mor is now the fairy.


[Hand of a scrivener]


(Ulick, first Earl of Clanrickard; Richard, Earl of Clanrickard, his son; Ulick, Earl of Clanrickard, his son; and Richard, now Earl of Clanrickard.)

Inquisition taken at Galway 20th March 1608, before Geoffrey Osbaldstone Esqre. {and others} by the oaths of lawful men who say that Ulick Bourke first Earl of Clanrickard before his creation by Henry 8th, was seized in fee by discent from his ancestors of the territory of Clanrickard, consisting of six baronies viz: Loughreegh, Dunkellyn, Kiltartan or Kiltaraght, Clare, Athenry and Leitrim, some of the manors whereof he held in demesne and all the rest of the said country that possessed by the gentlemen & freeholders were holden from him by Knight's service. That K. Henry 8th by letters pattents dated at Greenwich lst July 35th of his reign granted unto said Ulick and his heirs male said territorye {saving the


cocquett of Galway} also the Abbey of O'Gormagan, otherwise called Monasterud de Via Nova, within the diocese of Clonfert, and all advowsons of Rectoryes &c. in Clanrickard and Dunkellyn and the third part of all first fruits, reserving to his Majestye his heirs and successors the other two parts.

That said Ulick died seized in fee taile of the pmisses by force of said tres patents. Whereupon Rickard Bourke, second Earl, son and heir of said Ulick, entered and was seized of the pmisses in fee tail. That Queen Elizabeth by tres patents dated at Westminster 22d June 1st year of her reign, did confirm unto said Rickard and his heirs the titles &c. of Earle of Clanrickarde and Lord Baron of Dunkellyn with the fore recited premisses, who died seized thereof, and Ulick


Bourke, third Earl, son and heir to said Rickard, entered and was thereof seized. That it was found by an 1nquisition (not to be found) taken before John Crofton Esqre. at Athenry lst October 1584 that said Rickard late Earl died 24th July 1582 seized in fee and fee taile of the several lands followinge viz: the manors and castles of Loughreagh, Dunkellin, Leitrim, Clare, Clonecastle otherwise Clonnacashlan, the castle of Clondagawe, the Castle of Portumna with 2 qu:, the Castle of Ballenesloe with 1½ q., the Castle of Killinacray with 1 q, the Castle of Leackaghfin with 2 q., the Castle of Balladogan and 3 q., the Castle of Ballaturry with 3 q, the Castle of Kilcolgan and 5 q., the Castle of Beallanyhewly and 1 q., the Castle of Rathgurgin and 4 q., the Castle of Twolubin


and 23/4 q., the Castle of Moyne and 6 q:, the Castle of Lysserolan and 2 q., and 2 qrs. in Quinelloghny Dokuske, the Castle of Moneduffe and 1 q., the Castle of Feartamore and 4 q., the Castle of Ardrahan and 3½ q., the Castle of Corrofyny and 7 q., the Castle of Oranmore and 4 q., the Towne of Beaghe {4 q.}, Layragh {4 q.}, the ruinous Castle of Loghcowtra within an island in the Logh aforesaid, the several villages of Ballynrowan & Killratyree {4 q.}, Beallasrowrha {2 q.}, Stradvally and Tyrroine {4½ q.}, Cullyny {3 q.}, Dowcaslan {½ q.}, Carrowmointer Dowella {1 great q.}, Monyrnore {2 q.}, Kyssemeckenan als Kyssemeknenan {2 q.}, Cregnenante {2 q.} a chief rent of 20 marks p ann. out of the terrytory or cantred called Moyntennoroghon (Muintir Marchadha) 12 marks


out of the terrytory of Clynconowe commonly called Mac Davies Country, 6 marks out of the territory of Gnobegg in the O'Flaherty's country, and 7 marks out of Craghmoyle als McTibbett's lands and a chief rent of 300l. out of the whole country of Clanrickard when the same was well inhabitted to be paid in money and cowes, besides the usual services, all which were held in capite by knight's service. That said Rickard late Earl died seized in fee tail by virtue of letters patents dated at Dublin eighteenth day of July 12th Eliz. of the several abbeyes following viz, the late Priory of Clowntoskert in the Country of Imany, the late Priory of Aghrime in the County of Imany, the late Abbyes of Killnemanagh


in the said Province, the Abbye of St John Baptist in the City or towne of Twame, the house of nunnes in Killcrevat, the late Abbey of Ballyclare, the late Abbey of Rosseville in Moyntermoroghow (Muintir Murchadha, Ross in it), the late house of Friar Carmelites in Loughreagh, the late Abbeys of Kilbought and Anaghdowne, all held by Knight's service by the rent of £. 68-q. 6- Ir. per ann. That there was a Survey made of all the aforesaid Spirituall livings and religious houses by Michael Fitzwilliams Esq. Surveiour General in 1582. That Ulick Bourke father of the now Earl did enter into said Earldome and all and singular the Manors Lordships Castles &ca. {except the Castle of Ballensloe} and the lands thereunto belonging now in the possession and tenure of the heirs of


Anthony Brabazon and also the Castle of Feartainore and the Lands thereof and Lysserille (in Clare galway Ph.), now in the possession of Valentyne Blake and others, and that said Earl Ulick was likewise seized in fee and fee tayle of the lands hereafter, viz: the manor of Looghreogh {12 q.} extending in the lands of Towroistagh (Tóin Roiste Ceancoylly, Caher, Garrybride and In Pairkavore {1 q.}, Parkejokaragh & Pollenvrenly {1 q.}, Parkebeg, Cornnell and Garranmore {1 q.}, Rawaren & Cahir Robart {lq.}, Cahergeall {1 q.}, Ballywrony {1 q.}, Carrowvore and Cahernichollahine {1 q.}, Lussefooky {½q.} in Ballincurry {2 q.}, Sheangarry {1 Cart}, Tireflahy {1 q.}, Cahercree {1½ q:}, Lyssemoyle and Caherneman {1½ q.}, Caherbrisce {½ q.}, Cahirhenryhoe {½ q.}, Carnanclery


{½ q.}, Cahervallinon {1 Car}, Cahernamona {1 Car}, the Castle of Twoloban {& 3 q.}, Carrownagtieragh {1 q.}, the Castle of Leackaghfinne {& 1 q.}, Carnanngee {1 Car}, the Castle of Bealanchowla {with 1 q.}, Ballingarine {4 q.}, the Castle of Beanmore and Beanbegg {with 2½ q.}, the ould ruinous castle of Galbolly {& 2 q.}, the Castle of Beallakerin {& 1 q.}, the Castle of Dunsandle {& 2 q.}, Fieragh {1 q.}, the Manor and Castle of Dunkellyn with the lands following viz: the quarter of the Castle [of] Knockrathboy {1 q.}, Royngrynan {1 q.}, Ruovehagh {3 q.}, Ballymc Killeaghayne {½ q.}, Fahy McTibbett {½ q.}, Lysnenowla {½ q.}, Cargyn {4 q.}, Cregnananta {2 q.}, the Castle of Kilcolgyn {& 2 q.},


Caherpeake and Clonloghan {1 q.}, Stradbally {3 q.}, Cayrraghedowe {½ q.}, Clonecrosse {½ q.}, Kilternaine {2 q.}, Killile {2 q.}, Tworindrishagh {1 q. & 1 Car}, Keyldues {1 Car}, the half of the Castle of Cloghballymore {& ½ q.}, Lissereogh & Tworiney Daly {½ q.}, Carrow Garrowneore Ardrahan {1 q.}, the Castle of Ardrahan {& ½ q.}, Cregniclary {2 q. & 3 Car}, Rahin {½ q.}, Cowlinagh {1 q.}, Carrowmointer e Dowly {1 q.}, Gorttyganavy {1 q.}, Killynaherry {½ q.}, Garrandarragh {½ Car}, the Castle of Oranmore {& 1 q.}, Monymore {2 q.}, the Castle of Monyduff {& 3 Car}, Lissmallyne {½ q.}, the Land of Shralogher neere Clare on the north side of the river, the Castle of Manyne {& 2 q.}, the Castle of Kilcornayne {& 8½ q.}, the Castle of Rowe {2 q.}, Creighboile {8 q.}, Killcowayne {3½ q.}, Carransantrye


{½ q.}, & Gortengowen {1 q.}, Lysselysagh {½ q.}, Lyssylundyny {½ q.}, Lyssinagrisagh & Buockine {1 q.}, Boherduff {½ q.}, Lurga {1 q.}, the Castle of Ballylee { & 4 q.}, Skehanagh {1 q.}, Caherfoyran {1 q.}, Laghevadde {1 q.}, the Castle of Ballaturyn {& 3 q.}, Carkeer {2 q.}, Lyssnapoynie {1 q.}, the Castle of Rivovyragh {& 1 q.}, Carrowgortvarryl {2 2/3 Car}, Capaghwoghter {½ q.}, Lesshenegirbe {1 Car}, Ballymoony, being parcell of Ballynauragh {1 q.}, Ballyconnell {1 q.}, Ballyanen {1 Car}, Lyssatony & Collurynderry {2 Car}, Gortneleky {1 Car}, Roynrowsk {1 Car}, Finowre {2 q.}, the Castle of Cloghrovanny {& 3 q. & 1 Car}, Lehcarrownecapog {½ q.}, Cornanmore {1 Car} Carrynduff {½ q.}, Lehcarrowentobber {½ q.}, Rahmoyhan {3 q.} of which William Oge Dolphin and Edmond Oge


Dolphin clayme 1 q. called Carrowneclogh in the towne of Tworoe, Carrawenearta & Bracklanbeg {1½ q.}, Ballyvorge {1 q.}, Knockerdaly {1 q.}, Garrylichally {½ q.}, the Castle of Rathgorgin {4 q.}, Carracayrke & Leaheadkirty {1 q. & 1 Car}, Lecharrawnecraiggycoll & Lehcarrow McMoylrowe {1 q.}, Lehcarrowinkarinley {½ q.}, the manor and Castle of Letrym, viz: Letrym {1 q.}, Ballyorgadavyne {2 q.}, Lyffnegrey {½ q.}, Cloghnagananagh {½ q.}, Carrowkyle {½ q.}, Killyne {½ q. I, Rathnerreakan (Rathneoneakan) {1 q.}, Carrowkrevin {1 q.}, Carrowmorenockell {1 q.}, Clownlych {1 q.}, Dunery {1 q.} with an old ruinous bawne, Graughy {2 q.}, Ayllengnoby {1 q.}, the Castle of Killmaccragh, Ballynlales {1 q.}, Grelagh {1 q.}, Carrowshangarrinamylowdagh {1 q.}, Carrowshaneballagh {1 q.}, the Castle of Tyneagh {with 2 q.}, Cappaghcurra {1 q.}, Carronyvoyne


{1 q.}, Rossengarry {1 Car}, the antient house and castle of Clowncastle {with 1 q.}, Leahkaban in Killaderdeowne {1 q.}, parcell of the quarter commonly called Carrowmore Mcnevagh als Kerrowe ne lecanbane, the Castle of Balladowgan {& 3 q.}, Imanna {2 q.}, Carrowcrogue {1 q.}, Burogh {1 Car}, Castle of Cloyndaagaw {with 2 q. of Cloyndagawe and Rossmore}, Twaymoylcon {2 q.}, Ballyuroane {1 q.}, Cloynrush {1 q.}, Kilbrathire als Ballashanvoich {4 q.}, the Castle of Ballynekilly {& 1 q.}, Leacarrortw Mac Dermott {½ q.}, Keapeagh {½ q.}, The Castle of Beallaneneane {& ½ q.}, the Castle of Coolfin {& 1 q. in Kynalehen}, Tullagh 1 q.}, Moyglasse {½ q.}, Caherardarwey {1 Car}, the third pte of a q. neere Colfin being pcell of the lands of the Sept of landavyes, the Castle of Killeowly {with 5 q.}, the ould ruinous castle of Annaghbrydy {& 1 q.}, the manor and castle of Clare {& 6 q.}, Beagh {4 q.}, the manor and


castle of Corrofinny {& 7 q.} Laragh {4 q.} the Manor and Castle of Portumny {4 q.} Toberkeogh {1 q.} Gortinvalla {1/3 Car.} Dromseartha {1 q.} Parke {4 acr. } Lickmolasse {1/3 q.} Cowlpawry 1/3 q.} Killymur {1 q.} the castle of Lysduff {& 1 q.} Knockwhene {1 q.} Garran {1 q.} Rathiconogher {1 q.} Carrawcavory {1 q.} Skeahanagh {½ q.} Liscontivoy {1 Car} Rathin {½ q.} Gortnagallagh {½ q.} Killine {½ q.} Gortywadine {1½ q.} Ballynrwayn {½ q.} Coylnegorr {½ q.} Knockantogher {2 q.} in Tworoe neere Caher McKrynode {½ q.} all in the county of Galway. That said Ulick died at Loughreogh 20th May 1601, leaving Rickard, the now Earle, his son & heire. That Rickard Earl is likewise now seized in fee by his own acquisition and purchase of the Castle of Tyrrellan {& 1 q.} the Castle of Castlegarr {& 1 q.} Carrowgarrowe near Ballybritt {1 q.} Cowlagh and Keapaloghra {½ q.} whereof Andrew Blake Fitzpatrick claimeth ¼th part of the Cartron


of Cowlagh, Gortenchally {1 Car} Collykyene & Gortnehahy {I Car} the Castle of Ballindowly {& ½ q.} Koylwoghter {2 parts of ½ q.} Colkeine {3 Car} Coweagh {1 Car} the Manor of Castletowne in Castletowne Ballyardegowll, Ballymoore, Cregganmore, Annaghbricke, Fannaghmore, Carrowknock, Kilcruinper, a yearly rent of 20s. out of Kiltaraght in the said County in Killaghter {2 q.} Carrowuckeive {1 q.} Clonbeg nere Campallagh {2 parts of 1 q.} Cullyry {1 q.} the Castle of Beallafenton {& 1 q.} one third pte of the Castle and bawne of Castlehackett, Annaghkin {2 q.} Tobere in Cossane {1 q.} Killdroma {2 q.} Laghte Ballyconlaghe {1 Car} Cartrone Iworyn in Cong {1 Car} the Manor of Liskennanan {4 q.}, another third part of Castlehackett and the Bawne with the lands following viz: Lehcarrow ne fyarleggy {½ q.} whereupon the Castle standeth, Carrownecaltry {½ q.} Carrowcam Castlelarrahackett {1 q.} Cloghbowlly {1 q.} Kildary & Carrownahealy {2 q.} Ballyconlaghta {2 Car} viz:


Cartron Lyeselynny and Cartron Leyatin, Donoghroo Lebally {2 q.} Castlehackett {with 4 q.} in Annaghkin {2 q.} Carrow in Owen {1 q.} Ballyconlaghta {1 q.} Cullyny {2 q.} Carrowmore neere Shrotell {1 q.} Killower {2 q.} a moiety of the Castle and Bawne of Ballenea {with 3 Car} Owenbegg {1 q. } Killdavy {1 q.} Carrowneheally {1 q.} Killdrowma {2 q.} the moiety of the Castle of Cloghroure (Cloghnoure) & of Bawne and Hall {with 6 q. } viz: {2 q.} adjoining the Castle and in Ballykill McRedmond {2 q.} Ballykill McRedmond {2 q.} and Ballymony Wrogill {2 q.} the Castle of Barnadregge with the Lough Bawne and Barbieare & ½ q. whereupon the Castle standeth, Cryvagh {3 Car} Carrowcouldorowgh {1 q.} Carrowyeanagh {1 Car} Carrowmearragh {1 q.} Carrownagorke Omanna {2 q.} Gortynadene {½ q.} Carrowe na Koyllemorey {1 q.} Corpkeherghy {½ q.} Clonconatt {1 Car} Maghery na garragh {1 Car} Lyssduff and Lyssemyhen {1 q.} Ballaghaghell


{3 Car} Ballanyscraigh {1/3 of ½ q.} Coylnacoysshe {1 Car} Cappaghkille ½ q.} Rathmore {1 q.} Cooshanbally {½ q.} Bowle rosc {½ q.} Clarery {½ q.} Corballymore {½ q.} Lyssenulty {½ q.} Ardancloncana & Aredawly {1 Car} Gortynpeadir {½ q. } Athanduff {1 Car} Clonconebegg {½ Car} Maghery in Lyssyn {½ q.} Clonpragske & Knockarevin (Knockanevin) {½ q.} Gortuory {1 Car} Corvalebeg {½ q.} Fahyvore {1 q.} Sawnagh {1 Car} Gortnacloyth {½ q.} in Inisheirke {1/3 Car} with another third pte of a Cartron of lnisheirke, the Castle Manor & Demeane of Callowe, viz. Carrowmurry {1 q.} Loghanureny {1 q.} Carrowengorvena {1 q.} Carrow McUltully {½ q.} Loghclerymore {1 q.} Carrowbearnemeharry {1 q. } Ballymabille {1 q.} Carrowereogh {1 q.} Ballanecloyth {1 q.} Lecarrowenegowlan {½ q.} in the towne of Killconnell {3 q.} viz: Bearnaboy & Lyssmacknedan {2 q.} & Kleagh {1 q. } Carrowemeanagh {1 q.} Lyssy Donnellan {1 q.} Lysskyvin {2 q.} the Castle of Lyssnevoltney {with ½ q.}


being part of the 2 qrs. of Killean in Killaghmore {1 q.} Castlebynne {1 Car} in Keappaghnashaille {1/5 Car} Ducloyn pcell of Killaine named Gurtynegarcke {1/5 q.} Rath Dullayne {½ Car} Gortyn Shylee pcell of the q. of Corraynyna {½ Car} Carrownacorrabare (Carrownacorrabane) {1 q.} in Ducloyne {another 1/3 Car} Keappaghnasvylle {1/5 Car} the fifth pte of Castlenabinne {with ½ q.} Cartrone in Caskeyne {1/5 Car} Shanrayth {1 Car} Crosmacroyne {½ q.} Lecarrotruhayne {½ q.} Lissenecoyve {1 q.} Carrownaclownaghmea {1 q.} Gortnecappell {½ q.} Clarine {1 q.} Killclowny {½ q.} Pollynareen {1 q.} Clonbarr {1 q.} the Castle of Milltowne {& 6 q.} the reversion of the Castle, Town and Lands of the Claddagh {expectant upon an estate tayle part thereof to Hugh O'Kelly and others of his kinsmen and the heires males of their bodyes, with dyverse remainders in taile} consisting of 2 q. called Aghegessy Lecarrownegarr {½ q.} Lomanaghoo and Lomanaghbane {1 q.} Rathkyrane


{1 q.} the Castle and Lands of Selhen {expectant upon an estate taile part thereof to John Bourke and the heirs males of his body with diverse remainders in taile} consisting of ½ q. in Lelhen aforesd, Cappaghnagh {½ q.} Clonmore {½ q.} Gortyne {½ q.} Lecarrowrooe {½ q.} Loghimlaghin {½ q.} Tubberneglogg {½ q.} Ballaghdorogho {½ q. } Cloncon {½ q.} Kill Fowny {½ q.} faertin {½ q.} the Manor and Castle of Teaquin {and 2 q.} Bengarra {½ q.} the Castle of Newcastle {2 q.} in the mountains {½ q.} the Castle of Tyrian {& 4 q.} Kenaghan {2½ q.} Lymoyfada {1 q.} Derry Mcfynnilly {1½ q.} Carngort in Knockmolldeargge {1 q.} the Manor and ruynous castles of Milicke in the river of the Shanen {with 4 q.} the Castle of Illanedarragh in Mylick with certaine Ilands in the said river belonging to Mylicke, of which Manor of Milicke all the Lands within the


Barony of Longford are holden by Knight's Service. The Manor and Castle of Feartamore {& 5½ q.} of which manor 28 qrs. of freeholders lands were adjoyning thereto are holden by Knight's Service, the reversion in fee after an estate taile of Killamore {1 q.} Killaine {½ q. 2/3 Car}. The reversion in fee of Lisnecourt {½ q. } Lysskrone {1 q.} Troyet {1 q.} granted by the now Earle in taile to the Clanteiges, the reversion in fee of Lysballyconly {½ q.} Karrowmeanagh ne Shean {1 q.} & Dengonyaghter {½ q.} past by the now Earl to Teig O'Concannon & the heires males of his body. That John King Esqre. being seized in fee by letters patents bearing date at Dublin 9 March 3d year K. James did by deed dated 24th Nov. 1607 give grant bargain sell and confirm to the said Rickard now Earl Clanrickard and his heires for ever the severall pcells of land following viz: Cloghgalla {½ Car} Ballynikranagh {1/3 Car} Isercleran {½ q.} Clownkellagh {½ q.} Ballintullagh {3 Car} Clowncoana {1 Car} Rahin & Rathconnor {1 q.} Gervane {1 q.} Keappaghkillowe {½ q.} Gortynehinvasane {2/3 pts. of


½ q.} Cloynkossy {1 Car} Carrownardan {½ q.} Killymore {½ q.} Macnehamoy {1/3 q.} Rathmore {1 Car} Cowlbane {½ q.} Ballylby {¼ Car} Kranagh McKuavin {½ Car}, the late Abbey of Porumny {& ½ acr.} three half q. and the ¼ of a castle in Kilcloony Gort Drishegh {½ q.}Castletogher {½ q.} the third pte of the Castle of Killerowane {& the 1/3 of two ptes of 1 Car} Knockanroo {1 Car} Gortnedyne {1 Car} the Castle of the Abbert {& ½ q.} Ballynebrenagh {1/3 Car} the third pte of the Castle of Clare {& 1 Car} Killyane {½ Car} the third pte of two ptes of 1 Cartron and the third pte of two ptes of the Castle of Kilcrivayn. That said John King being likewise seized in fee of the Monastery of Milick in the river of Shannon with the island, granted same to Roger Downlon Esqre. by deed bearing date 24th of July 1606 conveyed same to Rickard now Earl and his heirs for ever. That the Manor and Castle of Milick {& 4 q.}, the Castle of Newcastle {with 4 q.}, the Manor of Feartamore {with 6 q.} the Manor and Castle of


Milltown {with 5 q.} are free from the Composition. That said Rickard Earl is seized in fee of rent Services viz: out of the Claddagh XVs. Xd., out of Killaghmore {1 q.} Killaine {½ q. & 2/3 Car} Xs., out of Lisnecourt {½ q.} XXs., out of Liskeon {1 q.} XXs., out of Troist {1 q.} Xs., out of Lyssballyconly {½ q.} XIIs. out of Dowcastlan IIIs. IIIId. out of Correnena {1 q.} IIIs. IIIId. out of Clownygny {1 q.} VIs. VIIId., out of Carrowmeanagh ne Shianagh {1 q.} IIIs. IIId., out of Dengynyaghter {½ q.} in the County of Galway. That the Sept of Teig Roo O'Kelly of the Callow did receive long ago the rent of XXXVs. p ann. out of every q. of eight q. in Iraght Carbry namely Moyarvoh {1 q.} Monninyne {1 q.} Aytymany {1 q.} Carrowpaccaghshella {1 q.} Woghterclony {1 q.} Shanragh {1 q.} Moate {1 q.} Rathollan {1 q.}. That the now Earl is seized in fee of 2s. 6d. out of every q. of fowerskore qrs., Kynaley otherwise called O'Shaghnes Country when the said quarters are inhabited. They also say that by a


deed subscribed and sealed by Sir Richard Boyle Knight that the lands underwritten are pcells of the late Abbey of Anaghdowne and that said Richard now Earl is seized thereof in feetaile viz Leawcheb {1 q.} Cnock McCaher Oge & Inishbearrakan {1 q.} Carrowkellanebrehye {1 q.} Trieny in Grana {1 q.} Carrowlettermore-edertrahen {1 q.} Lettermoykue, Moyckneagh-ederahally {1 q.} Carrownagannanagh in Killenkelly {1 q.} a yearly rent of IIIs. IIIId. out of Lecarrow - also that these lands belong to the said late Abby of Anaghdowne, viz: Ower {3 q.] Cnockan {½ q.} one ruinous Chappell in the great Iland of Aren {& 12 acr.} and three quarters of Tyeth in Tryeneorragh - a yearly rent out of the town & lands of Spedell in O'Flaherty's Country, Lyssduff in Gnomore, the rent of IIIs. IIIId. out of every of these 3 quarters of land viz: Keilvroa {1 q.} Carrowangananagh {1 q.} & Lettermuckra {1 q.} & the moiety of Tithe in said 3 last qrs. That there are rents due to said now Earl in right of the late Munery ([Added in a different hand:] Nunnery) of


Kilcrenate out of these Lands viz XId. out of Lehpanaghs {1 Car} XXIId. out of Killyny nere Ballynehinchy {½ q.} XXIId. out of Umgoyth {½ q.} IIIs. VIIId. out of Dowrash and Inishdorus {1 q.} XId. out of Fearuoght and Glanlosky nere Dunguaro {1 Car} XId. out of Bearnailly {1 Car} IIs. IXd. out of Dromana Gulyn {3 Car} XId. out of Cnockanaganveine & Ilandmore {1 Car} with an old stone house neere Ballynaonagh XId. out of Keillamilcon {1 Car} XXIId. out of Seanowharraghan {½ q.} being pcell of Kilbride with the tithes thereof, XIId. out of Slyawpartrey called Barragleana {½ q.} XId. out of the Derry {1 Car} XId. out of Sraynalonga {1 Car} all which was lying and being within the County of Galway. That there are fewer qrs. of land conceled in the territory of Publementorfahy from the King and the now Earle, the lands being in all 11 qrs. namely Keappaghard {4 q.} Ballynarowe


{4 q.} Calluragh, pcell of Kilcarnnagh {2 q.} Ballynroane, pcell of Ballynegallagh {1 q. }. That Kilclonlaght als Killclyonlought pcell of the late Abby of Annag Down doth belong to the now Earl. That all the said late Religious Howses and the possessions thereof were before the late Composition discharged from all rents, only Exchequer rent excepted, and have byn and ought to be free from all country charges and contributions, Com Annex.


[Hand of J. O'Donovan resumed:]

From the foregoing Inquisition it will appear that the Earl of Clanrickard possessed himself not only of Moenmoy Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne and Muinter Murchadha but also of many isolated spots in Hy-Many and Siol-Anmchadha as the identification of the places mentioned in this inquisition will satisfactorily shew; but as we have already done this in our letters on the respective parishes, it is unnecessary to do so (it) here a second time.

The Earl of Clanrickard changed his place of residence very frequently as we learn from the Irish Annals and from the tradition in the County. Mac William oughter's seat was Baile an Chlair, now Clare Galway, situated


about 5 miles from Galway on the road to Tuam. His descendants the Earls of Clanrickard lived principally at Loughrea, and sometimes at Achadh na n-iubhar in Moycullen, and sometimes also at Tir-Oileain {Terryland} in the immediate vicinity of Galway. But latterly and at present the seat of Clanrickard is at Portumna which was originally in O'Madden's Country.

I have now done with the territories in the County of Galway, and though it has cost me many an hour of severe application to lay down their boundaries, I fear that no one will have the patience to grope his way through my lucubrations. If not I shall address future topographers who


will be smitten with the same mania as myself. "Vobis vigilavi"!

Ancient topography is of very little consequence, and the person who applies himself to the study of it is almost despised in this country, but as every ancient nation has been careful to preserve with a kind of religious care all their Geographical charts and topographical treatises, I shall do all in my power to place the Irish topographical treatises and fragments in as tangible a form as I can, for the use of posterity.

Your obedient Servant,
John O'Donovan